Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children [2015/11/13 08:25]
marri2
effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children [2016/10/28 09:29] (current)
marri [Effects of Out-of-Wedlock Birth on Children]
Line 4: Line 4:
  
 From the very beginning, children born outside of marriage have life stacked against them. While many single mothers work wonders and raise their children well despite the obstacles they encounter, for many others the challenge is too great and their children suffer the consequences. From the very beginning, children born outside of marriage have life stacked against them. While many single mothers work wonders and raise their children well despite the obstacles they encounter, for many others the challenge is too great and their children suffer the consequences.
- 
 =====1. Health at Birth===== =====1. Health at Birth=====
  
-Illegitimacy ​is related to poor health at birth. An overview of the professional literature concluded that the main reason for America’s low international standing on infant mortality was the rate of the young mothers giving birth outside of marriage.((David Lester, “Infant Mortality and Illegitimacy,​” //Social Science Medicine// 35, no. 5 (1992): 739-740.)) Nicholas Eberstadt of the Washington-based American Enterprise Institute makes the same case for Washington, D.C., the infant mortality capital of the country.((See two articles by Nicholas Eberstadt on infant mortality rates in Washington, D.C.: “In the District, Children Without a Chance: The Startling Facts of Life and Death in the Infant Mortality Capital of America” and “Parents and the District’s Endangered Children,​” //The Washington Times//, February 22 and 23, 1994.)) Infants born to younger women are more likely to be born prematurely,​ and to die in the neonatal period.((V. Sharma, J. Katz, L. C. Mullany, ​ S. K. Khatry, S. C. LeClerq, S. R. Shrestha, and J. M. Tielsch, "Young Maternal Age and the Risk of Neonatal Mortality in Rural Nepal,"​ //Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine// 162, no. 9 (2008): 828–835. doi:​10.1001/​archpedi.162.9.828 \\ Christine A. Bachrach, and Karen Carver in the introduction to //Outcomes of Early Childbearing//,​ National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Conference Proceedings,​ May 1992.)) The 2013 National Vital Statistics Report found that the mortality rate for infants of unmarried mothers was 77 percent higher than the rate for infants of married mothers.((T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) According to researchers from The National Center for Health Statistics: “Both black and white unmarried women had a substantially higher risk of having infants with very low or moderately low birth rates.”((Joel C. Kleinman and Samuel S. Kessel, “Racial Differences in Low Birth Weight,” //New England Journal of Medicine// 317, (1987): 749-753. \\ T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) Very low birth weight babies are at high risk for serious complications and their treatment add significantly to the Medicaid cost of births to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|welfare mothers]]. ​+Out-of-wedlock birth is related to poor health at birth. An overview of the professional literature concluded that the main reason for America’s low international standing on infant mortality was the rate of the young mothers giving birth outside of marriage.((David Lester, “Infant Mortality and Illegitimacy,​” //Social Science Medicine// 35, no. 5 (1992): 739-740.)) Nicholas Eberstadt of the Washington-based American Enterprise Institute makes the same case for Washington, D.C., the infant mortality capital of the country.((See two articles by Nicholas Eberstadt on infant mortality rates in Washington, D.C.: “In the District, Children Without a Chance: The Startling Facts of Life and Death in the Infant Mortality Capital of America” and “Parents and the District’s Endangered Children,​” //The Washington Times//, February 22 and 23, 1994.)) Infants born to younger women are more likely to be born prematurely,​ and to die in the neonatal period.((V. Sharma, J. Katz, L. C. Mullany, ​ S. K. Khatry, S. C. LeClerq, S. R. Shrestha, and J. M. Tielsch, "Young Maternal Age and the Risk of Neonatal Mortality in Rural Nepal,"​ //Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine// 162, no. 9 (2008): 828–835. doi:​10.1001/​archpedi.162.9.828 \\ Christine A. Bachrach, and Karen Carver in the introduction to //Outcomes of Early Childbearing//,​ National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Conference Proceedings,​ May 1992.)) The 2013 National Vital Statistics Report found that the mortality rate for infants of unmarried mothers was 77 percent higher than the rate for infants of married mothers.((T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) According to researchers from The National Center for Health Statistics: “Both black and white unmarried women had a substantially higher risk of having infants with very low or moderately low birth rates.”((Joel C. Kleinman and Samuel S. Kessel, “Racial Differences in Low Birth Weight,” //New England Journal of Medicine// 317, (1987): 749-753. \\ T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) Very low birth weight babies are at high risk for serious complications and their treatment add significantly to the Medicaid cost of births to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|welfare mothers]]. ​
 =====2. Development===== ​ =====2. Development===== ​
  
-The absence of married parents is related to delayed development in early childhood. Different risks associated with illegitimacy ​arise as the child grows older. The professional scientific literature amply documents the relationship to delays in development. For example, ​illegitimate ​children tend to be shorter and have smaller heads.((Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984): 303-313.)) Their cognitive (especially verbal) development is lessened.((A. Walsh, “Illegitimacy,​ Child-Abuse and Neglect, and Cognitive Development,​” //Journal of Genetic Psychology//​ 15, (1990): 279-285; \\ J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents// Palo Alto, California: American Institutes for Research Final Report to NICHD, 1977. \\ J.J. Card, “Long Term Consequences for Children of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography//​ 18 (1981): 137-156; \\ Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984): 303-313.)) Many of these children have problems in controlling their activity (popularly called “hyperactivity”). This lack of control is usually an indication of problems in learning that will arise later in the child’s development.((J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// 6, (1986): 224-225.)) The effect on boys is greater, at least in the early years.((J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents//, Palo Alto, California: Final Report to NICHD, American Institutes for Research 1977; \\ J.J. Card, “Long Term Consequences for Children of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography//​ 18, (1981): 137-156; \\ J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// 6, (1986): 224-225.))  ​+The absence of married parents is related to delayed development in early childhood. Different risks associated with out-of-wedlock birth arise as the child grows older. The professional scientific literature amply documents the relationship to delays in development. For example, children ​born out-of-wedlock ​tend to be shorter and have smaller heads.((Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984): 303-313.)) Their cognitive (especially verbal) development is lessened.((A. Walsh, “Illegitimacy,​ Child-Abuse and Neglect, and Cognitive Development,​” //Journal of Genetic Psychology//​ 15, (1990): 279-285; \\ J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents// Palo Alto, California: American Institutes for Research Final Report to NICHD, 1977. \\ J.J. Card, “Long Term Consequences for Children of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography//​ 18 (1981): 137-156; \\ Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984): 303-313.)) Many of these children have problems in controlling their activity (popularly called “hyperactivity”). This lack of control is usually an indication of problems in learning that will arise later in the child’s development.((J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// 6, (1986): 224-225.)) The effect on boys is greater, at least in the early years.((J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents//, Palo Alto, California: Final Report to NICHD, American Institutes for Research 1977; \\ J.J. Card, “Long Term Consequences for Children of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography//​ 18, (1981): 137-156; \\ J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// 6, (1986): 224-225.))  ​
 =====3. Academic Performance===== =====3. Academic Performance=====
  
Line 19: Line 18:
 > According to a study by the National Association of Elementary School Principals, 33 percent of two-parent elementary school students are ranked as high achievers, as compared with 17 percent of single-parent students. The children in single-parent families are more likely to be truant or to have disciplinary action taken against them. Even after controlling for race, income and religion, scholars find significant differences in educational attainment between children who grow up in intact families and children who do not.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly// (April 1993): 47-70.)) > According to a study by the National Association of Elementary School Principals, 33 percent of two-parent elementary school students are ranked as high achievers, as compared with 17 percent of single-parent students. The children in single-parent families are more likely to be truant or to have disciplinary action taken against them. Even after controlling for race, income and religion, scholars find significant differences in educational attainment between children who grow up in intact families and children who do not.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly// (April 1993): 47-70.))
  
-In sharp contrast with parents of illegitimate ​children, married parents have higher expectations of their children, even when the children have the same intelligence and performance abilities.((Christina M. Gibson-Davis,​ Kathryn Edin, Sara McLanahan, "High Hopes But Even Higher Expectations:​ The Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, no. 5 (Dec 2005): 1301. \\ Maxine S. Thompson, Karl L. Alexander, and Doris R. Entwisle, “Household Composition,​ Parental Expectations and School Achievement,​” //Social Forces// 67 (1988): 424-451.)) ​+In sharp contrast with parents of children ​born out-of-wedlock, married parents have higher expectations of their children, even when the children have the same intelligence and performance abilities.((Christina M. Gibson-Davis,​ Kathryn Edin, Sara McLanahan, "High Hopes But Even Higher Expectations:​ The Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, no. 5 (Dec 2005): 1301. \\ Maxine S. Thompson, Karl L. Alexander, and Doris R. Entwisle, “Household Composition,​ Parental Expectations and School Achievement,​” //Social Forces// 67 (1988): 424-451.)) ​
 =====4. Emotional and Behavioral Stability===== ​ =====4. Emotional and Behavioral Stability===== ​