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effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children [2015/09/09 14:06]
marri [4.Emotional and Behavioral Stability]
effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children [2016/10/28 09:29] (current)
marri [Effects of Out-of-Wedlock Birth on Children]
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 ==========Effects of Out-of-Wedlock Birth on Children========== ==========Effects of Out-of-Wedlock Birth on Children==========
  
-//Synthesis Paper//: [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1994/​06/​rising-illegitimacy|Rising Illegitimacy:​ America'​s Social Catastrophe]] +The rate of nonmarital births has increased rapidly. In 1970, about 11 percent of all births were to [[demographics_of_non-married_parents|unmarried parents]]; by 1990, that figure rose to 28 percent. By 2013, around 41 percent of all U.S. births—roughly 1.6 million births per a year—were to unmarried parents.((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” //​Congressional Research Services Report// (2014). Available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​Accessed ​September 4, 2015.)) The largest share of nonmarital births are to women aged 20 through 24 years. Unlike in past decades, most out-of-wedlock births today—58 percent—are to cohabiting couples.((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” //​Congressional Research Services Report// (2014). Available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​Accessed ​September 4, 2015. \\ Steven L. Nock, “Marriage as a Public Issue,” //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005): 26. \\ Child Trends Data Bank, "Births to Unmarried Women"//Indicators on Child and Youth// (July 2014).)) Therefore, while a majority of these children have their biological mother and father present at birth, many spend most of their life in a single-parent family.
- +
-The rate of nonmarital births has increased rapidly. In 1970, about 11 percent of all births were to unmarried parents; by 1990, that figure rose to 28 percent. By 2013, around 41 percent of all U.S. births—roughly 1.6 million births per a year—were to unmarried parents.((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” //​Congressional Research Services Report// (2014) ​available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​(accessed ​September 4, 2015).)) The largest share of nonmarital births are to women aged 20 through 24 years. Unlike in past decades, most out-of-wedlock births today—58 percent—are to cohabiting couples.((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” //​Congressional Research Services Report// (2014) ​available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​(accessed ​September 4, 2015). \\ Steven L. Nock, “Marriage as a Public Issue,” //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005): 26. \\ Child TrendsData Bank, Births to Unmarried Women, Indicators on Child and YouthJuly 2014.)) Therefore, while a majority of these children have their biological mother and father present at birth, many spend most of their life in a single-parent family.+
  
 From the very beginning, children born outside of marriage have life stacked against them. While many single mothers work wonders and raise their children well despite the obstacles they encounter, for many others the challenge is too great and their children suffer the consequences. From the very beginning, children born outside of marriage have life stacked against them. While many single mothers work wonders and raise their children well despite the obstacles they encounter, for many others the challenge is too great and their children suffer the consequences.
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 =====1. Health at Birth===== =====1. Health at Birth=====
  
-Illegitimacy ​is related to poor health at birth. An overview of the professional literature concluded that the main reason for America’s low international standing on infant mortality was the rate of the young mothers giving birth outside of marriage.((David Lester, “Infant Mortality and Illegitimacy,​” //Social Science Medicine//, Vol. 35, No. 5 (1992), pp.739-740.)) Nicholas Eberstadt of the Washington-based American Enterprise Institute makes the same case for Washington, D.C., the infant mortality capital of the country.((See two articles by Nicholas Eberstadt on infant mortality rates in Washington, D.C.: “In the District, Children Without a Chance: The Startling Facts of Life and Death in the Infant Mortality Capital of America” and “Parents and the District’s Endangered Children,​” //The Washington Times//, February 22 and 23, 1994.)) Infants born to younger women are more likely to be born prematurely,​ and to die in the neonatal period.((Sharma, ​V., Katz, J., Mullany, L. C., Khatry, ​S. K., LeClerq, S. C., Shrestha, S. R., Tielsch, ​J. M. (2008), "Young Maternal Age and the Risk of Neonatal Mortality in Rural Nepal,"​ //Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine//, ​162(9)828–835. doi:​10.1001/​archpedi.162.9.828 \\ Christine A. Bachrach, and Karen Carver in the introduction to //Outcomes of Early Childbearing//,​ National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Conference Proceedings,​ May 1992.)) The 2013 National Vital Statistics Report found that the mortality rate for infants of unmarried mothers was 77 percent higher than the rate for infants of married mothers.((T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) According to researchers from The National Center for Health Statistics: “Both black and white unmarried women had a substantially higher risk of having infants with very low or moderately low birth rates.”((Joel C. Kleinman and Samuel S. Kessel, “Racial Differences in Low Birth Weight,” //New England Journal of Medicine//, ​Vol. 317 (1987), pp. 749-753. \\ T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) Very low birth weight babies are at high risk for serious complications and their treatment add significantly to the Medicaid cost of births to welfare mothers. ​+Out-of-wedlock birth is related to poor health at birth. An overview of the professional literature concluded that the main reason for America’s low international standing on infant mortality was the rate of the young mothers giving birth outside of marriage.((David Lester, “Infant Mortality and Illegitimacy,​” //Social Science Medicine// 35, no. 5 (1992)739-740.)) Nicholas Eberstadt of the Washington-based American Enterprise Institute makes the same case for Washington, D.C., the infant mortality capital of the country.((See two articles by Nicholas Eberstadt on infant mortality rates in Washington, D.C.: “In the District, Children Without a Chance: The Startling Facts of Life and Death in the Infant Mortality Capital of America” and “Parents and the District’s Endangered Children,​” //The Washington Times//, February 22 and 23, 1994.)) Infants born to younger women are more likely to be born prematurely,​ and to die in the neonatal period.((V. ​Sharma, J. Katz, L. C. Mullany S. K. Khatry, S. C. LeClerq, S. R. Shresthaand J. M. Tielsch, "Young Maternal Age and the Risk of Neonatal Mortality in Rural Nepal,"​ //Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine// ​162no. (2008)828–835. doi:​10.1001/​archpedi.162.9.828 \\ Christine A. Bachrach, and Karen Carver in the introduction to //Outcomes of Early Childbearing//,​ National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Conference Proceedings,​ May 1992.)) The 2013 National Vital Statistics Report found that the mortality rate for infants of unmarried mothers was 77 percent higher than the rate for infants of married mothers.((T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) According to researchers from The National Center for Health Statistics: “Both black and white unmarried women had a substantially higher risk of having infants with very low or moderately low birth rates.”((Joel C. Kleinman and Samuel S. Kessel, “Racial Differences in Low Birth Weight,” //New England Journal of Medicine// ​317, (1987)749-753. \\ T.J. Mathews and Marian F. MacDorman, “Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2010 Period Linked Birth/ Infant Death Data Set,” //National Statistics Reports// 62, no. 8 (2013): 8.)) Very low birth weight babies are at high risk for serious complications and their treatment add significantly to the Medicaid cost of births to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|welfare mothers]]
 =====2. Development===== ​ =====2. Development===== ​
  
-The absence of married parents is related to delayed development in early childhood. Different risks associated with illegitimacy ​arise as the child grows older. The professional scientific literature amply documents the relationship to delays in development. For example, ​illegitimate ​children tend to be shorter and have smaller heads.((Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​, Vol. 25, No. 2 (1984), pp. 303-313. )) Their cognitive (especially verbal) development is lessened.((A. Walsh, “Illegitimacy,​ Child-Abuse and Neglect, and Cognitive Development,​” //Journal of Genetic Psychology//​, Vol. 15 (1990), pp. 279-285; \\ J.J. Card, Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents,” //Final Report to NICHD, American Institutes for Research//, Palo Alto, California, 1977\\ J.J. Card, “Long ​term consequences ​for children ​of teenage parents,” //​Demography//​, Vol. 18 (1981), pp. 137-156; \\ Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​, Vol. 25, No. 2 (1984), pp. 303-313.)) Many of these children have problems in controlling their activity (popularly called “hyperactivity”). This lack of control is usually an indication of problems in learning that will arise later in the child’s development.((J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review//, ​Vol. 6 (1986), pp. 224-225.)) The effect on boys is greater, at least in the early years.((J.J. Card, Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents,” //Final Report to NICHD, American Institutes for Research//, Palo Alto, California, ​1977; \\ J.J. Card, “Long ​term consequences ​for children ​of teenage parents,” //​Demography//, ​Vol. 18 (1981), pp. 137-156; \\ J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review//, ​Vol. 6 (1986), pp. 224-225.))  ​+The absence of married parents is related to delayed development in early childhood. Different risks associated with out-of-wedlock birth arise as the child grows older. The professional scientific literature amply documents the relationship to delays in development. For example, children ​born out-of-wedlock ​tend to be shorter and have smaller heads.((Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984)303-313.)) Their cognitive (especially verbal) development is lessened.((A. Walsh, “Illegitimacy,​ Child-Abuse and Neglect, and Cognitive Development,​” //Journal of Genetic Psychology//​ 15(1990)279-285; \\ J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents// ​Palo AltoCalifornia: ​American Institutes for Research ​Final Report to NICHD, 1977\\ J.J. Card, “Long ​Term Consequences ​for Children ​of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography//​ 18 (1981)137-156; \\ Jane Wadsworth et al., “Teenage Mothering: Child Development at Five Years,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 25, no. 2 (1984)303-313.)) Many of these children have problems in controlling their activity (popularly called “hyperactivity”). This lack of control is usually an indication of problems in learning that will arise later in the child’s development.((J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// ​6, (1986)224-225.)) The effect on boys is greater, at least in the early years.((J.J. Card, //Long Term Consequences for Children Born to Adolescent Parents//, Palo Alto, California: ​Final Report to NICHD, American Institutes for Research 1977; \\ J.J. Card, “Long ​Term Consequences ​for Children ​of Teenage Parents,” //​Demography// ​18, (1981)137-156; \\ J. Brooks-Gunn and Frank Fustenberg Jr., “The Children of Adolescent Mothers: Physical, Academic and Psychological Outcomes,​” ​ //​Developmental Review// ​6, (1986)224-225.))  ​
 =====3. Academic Performance===== =====3. Academic Performance=====
  
 The absence of married parents is related to poor academic performance in school. This is amply documented in the professional literature. ​ The absence of married parents is related to poor academic performance in school. This is amply documented in the professional literature. ​
  
-A University of Illinois study of adults born outside of marriage found that the longer the time spent in a single-parent family the less education attained at all income levels of the parent. This significantly reduces the job and income attainments of these individuals and also reduces the overall performance of the nation’s economy. Those who have lived in single-parent homes as preschoolers are most effected. And once again, the study indicated, boys are more affected than girls.((Sheila F. Krein and Andrea H. Beller, “Educational Attainment of Children From Single-Parent Families: Differences by Exposure, Gender and Race,” //​Demography//, ​Vol. 25 (May 1988), pp. 221-234. )) Explains Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, a researcher at the Manhattan-based Institute for American Values:+A University of Illinois study of adults ​who were born outside of marriage found that the longer the time spent in a [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|single-parent family]] the less education attained at all income levels of the parent. This significantly reduces the job and income attainments of these individuals and also reduces the overall performance of the[[effects_of_family_structure_on_the_economy| ​nation’s economy]]. Those who have lived in single-parent homes as preschoolers are most affected. And once again, the study indicated, boys are more affected than girls.((Sheila F. Krein and Andrea H. Beller, “Educational Attainment of Children From Single-Parent Families: Differences by Exposure, Gender and Race,” //​Demography// ​25, (May 1988)221-234. )) Explains Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, a researcher at the Manhattan-based Institute for American Values:
  
-> According to a study by the National Association of Elementary School Principals, 33 percent of two-parent elementary school students are ranked as high achievers, as compared with 17 percent of single-parent students. The children in single parent families are more likely to be truant or to have disciplinary action taken against them. Even after controlling for race, income and religion, scholars find significant differences in educational attainment between children who grow up in intact families and children who do not.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly//April 1993, pp. 47-70.))+> According to a study by the National Association of Elementary School Principals, 33 percent of two-parent elementary school students are ranked as high achievers, as compared with 17 percent of single-parent students. The children in single-parent families are more likely to be truant or to have disciplinary action taken against them. Even after controlling for race, income and religion, scholars find significant differences in educational attainment between children who grow up in intact families and children who do not.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly// ​(April 1993): 47-70.))
  
-In sharp contrast with parents of illegitimate ​children, married parents have higher expectations of their children, even when the children have the same intelligence and performance abilities.((Christina M. Gibson-Davis,​ Kathryn Edin, Sara McLanahan, "High Hopes But Even Higher Expectations:​ The Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67.5 (Dec 2005)1301. \\ Maxine S. Thompson, Karl L. Alexander, and Doris R. Entwisle, “Household Composition,​ Parental Expectations and School Achievement,​” //Social Forces//, Vol. 67 (1988), pp. 424-451.)) ​+In sharp contrast with parents of children ​born out-of-wedlock, married parents have higher expectations of their children, even when the children have the same intelligence and performance abilities.((Christina M. Gibson-Davis,​ Kathryn Edin, Sara McLanahan, "High Hopes But Even Higher Expectations:​ The Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, no. 5 (Dec 2005)1301. \\ Maxine S. Thompson, Karl L. Alexander, and Doris R. Entwisle, “Household Composition,​ Parental Expectations and School Achievement,​” //Social Forces// 67 (1988)424-451.)) ​
 =====4. Emotional and Behavioral Stability===== ​ =====4. Emotional and Behavioral Stability===== ​
  
-The absence of married parents risks emotional and behavioral problems that compound during childhood. The impact of out-of-wedlock birth and growing up in a single-parent family on the child is significant and can be permanent. These children are more likely to suffer from:+The absence of married parents risks emotional and [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|behavioral problems]] that compound during childhood. The impact of out-of-wedlock birth and growing up in a single-parent family on the child is significant and can be permanent. These children are more likely to suffer from:
   * Emotional and behavioral problems;   * Emotional and behavioral problems;
   * Physical abuse; ​   * Physical abuse; ​
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   * An increased propensity to engage in violent, delinquent, and criminal behavior; ​   * An increased propensity to engage in violent, delinquent, and criminal behavior; ​
   * Poor school performance; ​   * Poor school performance; ​
-  * Expulsion from school;​((Robert Rector, ​Marriage: America’s Greatest Weapon Against Child Poverty,” Heritage Foundation Special Report #117 on Poverty and Inequality ​(September 2012) available ​at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​2012/​09/​marriage-americas-greatest-weapon-against-child-poverty]].))+  * Expulsion from school;​((Robert Rector, ​"Marriage: America’s Greatest Weapon Against Child Poverty,” Heritage Foundation Special Report #117 on Poverty and InequalitySeptember 2012. Available ​at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​2012/​09/​marriage-americas-greatest-weapon-against-child-poverty]].))
   * Difficult in delaying gratification;​   * Difficult in delaying gratification;​
   * Poor impulse control;   * Poor impulse control;
-  * A weaker sense of conscience or sense of right versus wrong.((E.M. Hetherington and B. Martin, “Family Interactions,​” in H.C. Quay and J.S. Werry (eds.), //​Psychopathological Disorders of Childhood// (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1979), ​pp. 247-302.))  ​+  * A weaker sense of conscience or sense of right versus wrong.((E.M. Hetherington and B. Martin, “Family Interactions,​” in H.C. Quay and J.S. Werry (eds.), //​Psychopathological Disorders of Childhood// (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1979), 247-302.))  ​
  
-About one-third of children born to unmarried mothers, or whose parents separate, become part of a two-parent family within five years.((Greg J. Duncan and Saul D. Hoffman, “Welfare Benefits, Economic Opportunities and Out-of-Wedlock Births Among Black Teenage Girls,” //​Demography//​, Vol. 27, No. 4 (1990), pp. 519-535.)) However ​this is not an unmixed blessing. Children ​from these “blended” families (families with step siblings in them) tend to have even more difficulties.((Nicholas Zill and Charlotte A. Schoenborn, "​Developmental,​ Learning, and Emotional Problems: Health of Our Nation'​s Children, United States 1988," //Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the National Center for Health Statistics//​, No. 190, November 1990. \\ Nicholas Zill and Carolyn C. Rogers, “Recent Trends in the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Their Implications for Public Policy” in Andrew J. Cherlin, ed., //The Changing American Family and Public Policy// (Washington,​ D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1988), ​pp. 90-91. )) As Whitehead explains:+About one-third of children born to unmarried mothers, or whose parents separate, become part of a two-parent family within five years.((Greg J. Duncan and Saul D. Hoffman, “Welfare Benefits, Economic Opportunities and Out-of-Wedlock Births Among Black Teenage Girls,” //​Demography//​ 27, no. 4 (1990)519-535.)) However, children ​from these “blended” families (families with step siblings in them) tend to have even more difficulties.((Nicholas Zill and Charlotte A. Schoenborn, "​Developmental,​ Learning, and Emotional Problems: Health of Our Nation'​s Children, United States 1988," //Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the National Center for Health Statistics// ​no. 190, (November 1990). \\ Nicholas Zill and Carolyn C. Rogers, “Recent Trends in the Well-Being of Children in the United States and Their Implications for Public Policy” in Andrew J. Cherlin, ed., //The Changing American Family and Public Policy// (Washington,​ D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1988), 90-91. )) As Whitehead explains:
  
-> In general the evidence suggests that remarriage neither reproduces nor restores the intact family structure, even when it brings in more income and a second adult into the household…Other difficulties seem to offset the advantages of extra income and an extra pair of hands…Step-families disrupt established loyalties, create new uncertainties,​ provoke deep anxieties, and sometimes threaten a child’s physical as well as emotional security.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly//, April 1993, pp. 47-70.))+> In general the evidence suggests that remarriage neither reproduces nor restores the intact family structure, even when it brings in more income and a second adult into the household…Other difficulties seem to offset the advantages of extra income and an extra pair of hands…Step-families disrupt established loyalties, create new uncertainties,​ provoke deep anxieties, and sometimes threaten a child’s physical as well as emotional security.((Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, “Dan Quayle Was Right,” //The Atlantic Monthly//, April 1993, 47-70.))
  
-Many of these problems exist even after controlling for family income and education. Hence, the decline of intact married families generates social and monetary poverty for future generations. The root cause of these ills lies in the lack of married parents. Therefore, the effect of a married mother and father are quite pronounced.((Robert Rector, ​Marriage: America’s Greatest Weapon Against Child Poverty,” Heritage Foundation Special Report #117 on Poverty and Inequality ​(September 2012) available ​at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​2012/​09/​marriage-americas-greatest-weapon-against-child-poverty]].)) ​+Many of these problems exist even after controlling for family income and education. Hence, the decline of intact married families generates social and [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_poverty|monetary poverty]] for future generations. The root cause of these ills lies in the lack of married parents. Therefore, the [[effects_of_marriage_on_society|effect of a married mother and father]] are quite pronounced.((Robert Rector, ​"Marriage: America’s Greatest Weapon Against Child Poverty,” Heritage Foundation Special Report #117 on Poverty and InequalitySeptember 2012. Available ​at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​2012/​09/​marriage-americas-greatest-weapon-against-child-poverty]]. 
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 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1994/​06/​rising-illegitimacy|Rising Illegitimacy:​ America'​s Social Catastrophe]].))