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effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health [2016/04/14 12:22]
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effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health [2017/05/16 12:24] (current)
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 =====1. Health Care===== =====1. Health Care=====
  
-Family intactness has a negative influence on an area’s fraction of 25- to 54-year-olds and minors receiving [[effects_of_family_structure_on_healthcare_coverage|public healthcare]],​((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative// influence on an area's fraction of 25-to 54-year-olds and minors receiving public healthcare. \\ Precision has no formal meaning. It indicates how clearly determinable (distinguishable from zero) an influence on an outcome is. Precision is comparable to standard deviation. Low/ no precision indicates a high standard of deviation in which data points spread over a large range of value, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively uncertain. High precision indicates a low standard of deviation in which data points hover around the mean, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively certain. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.frc.org/​get.cfm?​i=RS11E03|“Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage”]] \\ Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) and a  positive influence on an area’s fraction of 25- to 54-year-olds and minors with [[effects_of_family_structure_on_healthcare_coverage|private healthcare coverage]].((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ positive// influence on an area's fraction of 25-to 54-year-olds and minors with private healthcare coverage. \\ Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) Married men and women are also more likely to have health insurance.((R.G. Wood, B. Goesling, and S. Avellar, “The Effects of Marriage on Health: Synthesis of Current Research Evidence,​” Contract # 233-02-0086 (Washington,​ D.C.: ASPE, HHS 2007). Available at [[http://​aspe.hhs.gov/​hsp/​07/​marriageonhealth/​index.htm]]. As cited in Jana Staton, “Making the Connection Between Healthy Marriage and Health Outcomes: What the Research Says” //National Healthy Marriage Resource Center Research Brief// (2009): 1-18. Available at [[http://​www.healthymarriageinfo.org/​resource-detail/​index.aspx?​rid=3649.]] Accessed 8 September 2011. +Family intactness has a negative ​(decreasing) ​influence on an area’s fraction of 25- to 54-year-olds and minors receiving [[effects_of_family_structure_on_healthcare_coverage|public healthcare]],​((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative// influence on an area's fraction of 25-to 54-year-olds and minors receiving public healthcare. \\ Precision has no formal meaning. It indicates how clearly determinable (distinguishable from zero) an influence on an outcome is. Precision is comparable to standard deviation. Low/ no precision indicates a high standard of deviation in which data points spread over a large range of value, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively uncertain. High precision indicates a low standard of deviation in which data points hover around the mean, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively certain. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.frc.org/​get.cfm?​i=RS11E03|“Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage”]] \\ Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) and a  positive ​(increasing) ​influence on an area’s fraction of 25- to 54-year-olds and minors with [[effects_of_family_structure_on_healthcare_coverage|private healthcare coverage]].((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ positive// influence on an area's fraction of 25-to 54-year-olds and minors with private healthcare coverage. \\ Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) Married men and women are also more likely to have health insurance.((R.G. Wood, B. Goesling, and S. Avellar, “The Effects of Marriage on Health: Synthesis of Current Research Evidence,​” Contract # 233-02-0086 (Washington,​ D.C.: ASPE, HHS 2007). Available at [[http://​aspe.hhs.gov/​hsp/​07/​marriageonhealth/​index.htm]]. As cited in Jana Staton, “Making the Connection Between Healthy Marriage and Health Outcomes: What the Research Says” //National Healthy Marriage Resource Center Research Brief// (2009): 1-18. Available at [[http://​www.healthymarriageinfo.org/​resource-detail/​index.aspx?​rid=3649.]] Accessed 8 September 2011. 
 \\ Lauren Duberstein Lindberg and Susheela Singh “Sexual Behavior of Single Adult American Women,” //​Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health// 40, no. 1 (March 2008): 1)) Furthermore,​ married individuals occupy hospitals and health institutions less often than others,​((P.M. Prior and B.C. Hayes, “Marital Status and Bed Occupancy in Health and Social Care Facilities in the United Kingdom,” //Public Health// 115, (2001): 402.  \\ Lauren Duberstein Lindberg and Susheela Singh “Sexual Behavior of Single Adult American Women,” //​Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health// 40, no. 1 (March 2008): 1)) Furthermore,​ married individuals occupy hospitals and health institutions less often than others,​((P.M. Prior and B.C. Hayes, “Marital Status and Bed Occupancy in Health and Social Care Facilities in the United Kingdom,” //Public Health// 115, (2001): 402. 
 \\ Lois M. Verbrugge, “Marital Status and Health,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 41, no. 2 (1979): 278.)) are released from hospitals sooner, on average, than unmarried individuals,​((Howard S. Gordon and Gary E. Rosenthal, “Impact of Marital Status on Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: Evidence from an Academic Medical Center,” //Archives of Internal Medicine// 155, (1995): 2467.)) and spend half as much time in hospitals as single individuals.((Lois Verbrugge and Donald Balaban, “Patterns of Change, Disability and Well-Being,​” //Medical Care// 27, (1989): S128-S147. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters.” Available at [[http://​www.ampartnership.org/​resourcecenter/​news/​89-why-marriage-matters.html]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.)) Married individuals are also less likely to go to a nursing home from the hospital.((Howard S. Gordon and Gary E. Rosenthal, “Impact of Marital Status on Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: Evidence from an Academic Medical Center,” //Archives of Internal Medicine// 155, (1995): 2466, 2468.)) Not surprisingly,​ marriage also affects an individual'​s health.  ​ \\ Lois M. Verbrugge, “Marital Status and Health,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 41, no. 2 (1979): 278.)) are released from hospitals sooner, on average, than unmarried individuals,​((Howard S. Gordon and Gary E. Rosenthal, “Impact of Marital Status on Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: Evidence from an Academic Medical Center,” //Archives of Internal Medicine// 155, (1995): 2467.)) and spend half as much time in hospitals as single individuals.((Lois Verbrugge and Donald Balaban, “Patterns of Change, Disability and Well-Being,​” //Medical Care// 27, (1989): S128-S147. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters.” Available at [[http://​www.ampartnership.org/​resourcecenter/​news/​89-why-marriage-matters.html]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.)) Married individuals are also less likely to go to a nursing home from the hospital.((Howard S. Gordon and Gary E. Rosenthal, “Impact of Marital Status on Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: Evidence from an Academic Medical Center,” //Archives of Internal Medicine// 155, (1995): 2466, 2468.)) Not surprisingly,​ marriage also affects an individual'​s health.  ​
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 =====2. Lifestyle===== =====2. Lifestyle=====
  
-A lower fraction of married ​personsthan ​widowed, divorced or separated, never-married,​ or cohabiting persons have only "fair to poor health."​((Charlotte A. Schoenborn, “Marital Status and Health: United States, 1999-2002,​” //Advance Data and Statistics//​ no. 351 (2004): 9.)) Married women rate their health better than do divorced, separated, widowed, and never-married women.((Beth A. Hahn, “Marital Status and Women’s Health: The Effect of Economic Marital Acquisitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 55, (1993): 502 \\ Simó-Noguera,​ Carles, et al. “The Effect on Health of Marital and Cohabitation Status.” //Revista Española De Investigaciones Sociologicas//​ no. 151 (July 2015): 141, 156.)) Married individuals smoke and binge-drink less frequently than cohabiters.((Theodore D. Fuller, “Relationship Status, Health, and Health Behavior: An Examination of Cohabiters and Commuters,​” //​Sociological Perspectives//​ 53, no. 2 (2010): 236.)) Women who marry lessen their alcohol consumption,​ while married men whose marriages break up increase their alcohol consumption and cigarette use.((Debra Umberson, “Gender, Marital Status and the Social Control of Health Behavior,​” //Social Science and Medicine// 34, no. 8 (1992): 910. +A lower fraction of married ​persons than widowed, divorced or separated, never-married,​ or cohabiting persons have only "fair to poor health."​((Charlotte A. Schoenborn, “Marital Status and Health: United States, 1999-2002,​” //Advance Data and Statistics//​ no. 351 (2004): 9.)) Married women rate their health better than do divorced, separated, widowed, and never-married women.((Beth A. Hahn, “Marital Status and Women’s Health: The Effect of Economic Marital Acquisitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 55, (1993): 502 \\ Simó-Noguera,​ Carles, et al. “The Effect on Health of Marital and Cohabitation Status.” //Revista Española De Investigaciones Sociologicas//​ no. 151 (July 2015): 141, 156.)) Married individuals smoke and binge-drink less frequently than cohabiters.((Theodore D. Fuller, “Relationship Status, Health, and Health Behavior: An Examination of Cohabiters and Commuters,​” //​Sociological Perspectives//​ 53, no. 2 (2010): 236.)) Women who marry lessen their alcohol consumption,​ while married men whose marriages break up increase their alcohol consumption and cigarette use.((Debra Umberson, “Gender, Marital Status and the Social Control of Health Behavior,​” //Social Science and Medicine// 34, no. 8 (1992): 910. 
 \\ Lois Verbrugge and Donald Balaban, “Patterns of Change, Disability and Well-Being,​” //Medical Care// 27, (1989): S128-S147. \\ Susan L. Brown, and Lauren N Rinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal of Research On Adolescence//​ 20, no. 2 (June 2010): 265-266.)) Married young adults are less likely to be alcoholic than young adults who are not in a romantic relationship.((Jeremy E. Uecker, "​Marriage and Mental Health among Young Adults,"​ //Journal Of Health & Social Behavior// 53, no. 1 (March 2012): 67.))  ​ \\ Lois Verbrugge and Donald Balaban, “Patterns of Change, Disability and Well-Being,​” //Medical Care// 27, (1989): S128-S147. \\ Susan L. Brown, and Lauren N Rinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal of Research On Adolescence//​ 20, no. 2 (June 2010): 265-266.)) Married young adults are less likely to be alcoholic than young adults who are not in a romantic relationship.((Jeremy E. Uecker, "​Marriage and Mental Health among Young Adults,"​ //Journal Of Health & Social Behavior// 53, no. 1 (March 2012): 67.))  ​
  
 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-Always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults and unmarried adults to report that they sometimes drink too much alcohol. According to the General Social Survey (GSS), 32.8 percent of always-intact married adults have reported that they sometimes drink too much alcohol, followed by 38.5 percent of married, previously-divorced adults, 43.2 percent of single, divorced or separated adults, and 47.8 percent of single, never-married adults. ((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "'​Sometimes Drinks Too Much Alcohol'​ by Marital Status,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10A53.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10A53.pdf|Chart]] Below)+Always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults and unmarried adults to report that they sometimes drink too much alcohol. According to the General Social Survey (GSS), 32.8 percent of always-intact married adults have reported that they sometimes drink too much alcohol, followed by 38.5 percent of married, previously-divorced adults, 43.2 percent of single, divorced or separated adults, and 47.8 percent of single, never-married adults. ((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "'​Sometimes Drinks Too Much Alcohol'​ by Marital Status,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-85-87-177.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-85-87-177.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10A53.pdf|{{ :sometimes_drinks_too_much_alcohol_by_marital_status.png?500 |"​Sometimes Drinks Too Much Alcohol"​ by Marital Status}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-85-87-177.pdf|{{ :drinks_too_much_alcohol_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"​Sometimes Drinks Too Much Alcohol"​ by Marital Status}}]]
  
 =====3. Severe Illnesses===== =====3. Severe Illnesses=====
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 Married mothers practice better prenatal care and more consistently avoid harmful substances than unmarried mothers do.((Rachel T. Kimbro, “Together Forever? Romantic Relationship Characteristics and Prenatal Health Behaviors,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 70, (2008): 751-753. ​ Married mothers practice better prenatal care and more consistently avoid harmful substances than unmarried mothers do.((Rachel T. Kimbro, “Together Forever? Romantic Relationship Characteristics and Prenatal Health Behaviors,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 70, (2008): 751-753. ​
 \\ Julien O. Teitler, “Father Involvement,​ Child Health and Maternal Health Behavior,​” //Children and Youth Services Review// 23, no. 4-5 (2001): 413-414.)) Married mothers are less likely to have low birth weight children than stably cohabiting mothers or mothers involved in a romantic relationship with their baby’s father.((Sheryl T. Bird, et al., “Beyond Marital Status: Relationship Type and Duration and the Risk of Low Birth Weight,” //Family Planning Perspectives//​ 32, no. 6 (2000): 285. \\ Julien O. Teitler, “Father Involvement,​ Child Health and Maternal Health Behavior,​” //Children and Youth Services Review// 23, no. 4-5 (2001): 413-414.)) Married mothers are less likely to have low birth weight children than stably cohabiting mothers or mothers involved in a romantic relationship with their baby’s father.((Sheryl T. Bird, et al., “Beyond Marital Status: Relationship Type and Duration and the Risk of Low Birth Weight,” //Family Planning Perspectives//​ 32, no. 6 (2000): 285.
-\\ Julien O. Teitler, “Father Involvement,​ Child Health and Maternal Health Behavior,​” //Children and Youth Services Review// 23, no. 4-5 (2001): 413.)) Married women have significantly fewer abortions than unmarried women.((National Center for Health Services, //National Vital Statistics Reports// 58, no. 4 (14 October 2009), Table 5, "​Pregnancy,​ Live Birth, and Induced Abortion Rates, by Marital Status and Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 1990-2005.” As cited in Patrick F. Fagan, Thomas J. Tacoma, Brooke A. Tonne, and Alexander W. Matthews, “The Annual Report on Family Trends: 2011, The Behaviors of the American Family in the Five Major Institutions of Society” (February 2011): 101-102. Available at [[http://​marri.frc.org/​get.cfm?​i=RS11B01]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.))+\\ Julien O. Teitler, “Father Involvement,​ Child Health and Maternal Health Behavior,​” //Children and Youth Services Review// 23, no. 4-5 (2001): 413.)) Married women have significantly fewer abortions than unmarried women.((National Center for Health Services, //National Vital Statistics Reports// 58, no. 4 (14 October 2009), Table 5, "​Pregnancy,​ Live Birth, and Induced Abortion Rates, by Marital Status and Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 1990-2005.” As cited in Patrick F. Fagan, Thomas J. Tacoma, Brooke A. Tonne, and Alexander W. Matthews, “The Annual Report on Family Trends: 2011, The Behaviors of the American Family in the Five Major Institutions of Society” (February 2011): 101-102. Accessed 20 July 2011.))
  
 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Health and Social Life Survey, those in always-intact marriages were least likely to have ever had a sexually transmitted disease (1.3 percent). Sexually transmitted disease is more prevalent in non-intact family structures and among singles: 1.8 percent of those who were always single have had a sexually transmitted disease; 3 percent of those who were divorced or separated have had a sexually transmitted disease and 3.1 percent of those who were divorced and remarried had ever had a sexually transmitted disease.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “'​Has Ever Had an STD' by Marital Status and Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=MA13E09]]. Accessed 19 December 2013.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13K50.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the National Health and Social Life Survey, those in always-intact marriages were least likely to have ever had a sexually transmitted disease (1.3 percent). Sexually transmitted disease is more prevalent in non-intact family structures and among singles: 1.8 percent of those who were always single have had a sexually transmitted disease; 3 percent of those who were divorced or separated have had a sexually transmitted disease and 3.1 percent of those who were divorced and remarried had ever had a sexually transmitted disease.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “'​Has Ever Had an STD' by Marital Status and Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-129.pdf]]. Accessed 19 December 2013.)) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-129.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13K50.pdf|{{ :has_ever_had_an_std_by_marital_status.png?500 |Percentage Who Have Ever Had an STD}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-129.pdf|{{ :frequency_of_std_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percentage Who Have Ever Had an STD}}]]
  
 =====6. Children'​s Well-Being===== =====6. Children'​s Well-Being=====
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 ====6.1 Related American Demographics==== ====6.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the Adolescent Health Survey (Wave I), female students in Grades 7-12 have an average of 0.71 sexual partners when they live in intact married families, whereas those who have a stepparent or divorced parents have an average of 1.39 and 1.29 sexual partners, respectively.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Sexual Intercourse Partners—Adolescent Girls,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K28.pdf]]+According to the Adolescent Health Survey (Wave I), female students in Grades 7-12 have an average of 0.71 sexual partners when they live in intact married families, whereas those who have a stepparent or divorced parents have an average of 1.39 and 1.29 sexual partners, respectively.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Sexual Intercourse Partners—Adolescent Girls,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-4-6-150.pdf]]
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​reasons-to-marry|164 Reasons to Marry]].)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K28.pdf|Chart]] Below)+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​164-reasons-to-marry/|164 Reasons to Marry]].)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-4-6-150.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K28.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_sexual_intercourse_partners_adolescent_girls.png?500 |Sexual Intercourse Partners for Girls by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-4-6-150.pdf|{{ :number_of_sexual_partners_for_adolescent_girls_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Sexual Intercourse Partners for Girls by Family Structure}}]]