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effects_of_family_structure_on_child_abuse [2015/08/27 13:10]
marri [1.The Intact Married Family]
effects_of_family_structure_on_child_abuse [2017/05/23 07:11] (current)
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 ==========Effects of Family Structure on Child Abuse========== ==========Effects of Family Structure on Child Abuse==========
  
-//Synthesis Paper//: [[http://​thf_media.s3.amazonaws.com/​1997/​pdf/​bg1115.pdf|The Child Abuse Crisis: The Disintegration of Marriage, Family, and the American Community]] +Today, more Americans live in a manner that separates the bearing and raising of children from traditional marriage. This undermines the well-being of children. Since 1950, the Index of Belonging for U.S. teenagers—the number of teens raised in an intact married family, has decreased from 63 percent to 46 percent.((Patrick F. Fagan and Christina Hadford, “The Fifth Annual Index of Family Belonging and Rejection,​” Marriage and Religion Research Institute (2015). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​fifth-annual-index-of-belonging-and-rejection/​]])) The United States increasingly is becoming a country of second-, third-, and even fourth-generation marriage-less "​families."​ In such circumstances,​ as the research shows, children are most likely to suffer abuse and neglect, and new subcultures of [[child_abuse_in_the_united_states|abuse]] are more likely to be established.
- +
-Today, more Americans live in a manner that separates the bearing and raising of children from traditional marriage. This undermines the well-being of children.. Since 1950, the Index of Belonging for U.S. teenagers—the number of teens raised in an intact married family, has decreased from 63 percent to 46 percent.((Patrick F. Fagan and Christina Hadford, “The Fifth Annual Index of Family Belonging and Rejection,​” Marriage and Religion Research Institute (2015). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=OR15B02]])) The United States increasingly is becoming a country of second-, third-, and even fourth-generation marriage-less "​families."​ In such circumstances,​ as the research shows, children are most likely to suffer abuse and neglect, and new subcultures of abuse are more likely to be established.+
  
 =====1. The Intact Married Family===== =====1. The Intact Married Family=====
  
-Child abuse is the opposite of child love. The married family is based deliberately on a decision by the husband and wife to build their lives and family on the love they have for each other, made public in a solemn contract before God and community. ​That such a decision would have a significant impact on the incidence of child abuse is common sense. That abuse is higher when the structure of family love is rejected or broken ​likewise makes sense. Measuring the differential impact of these family structures in the national surveys (intended to guide the country and its leaders on public policy) is therefore essential, and will have grave implications for the life and death of many children in the United States.+Child abuse is the opposite of child love. The married family is based deliberately on a decision by the husband and wife to build their lives and family on the love they have for each other, made public in a solemn contract before God and community. ​Abuse is higher when the structure of family love is rejected or broken. Measuring the differential impact of these family structures in the national surveys (intended to guide the country and its leaders on public policy) is therefore essential, and will have grave implications for the life and death of many [[child_abuse_in_the_united_states|children in the United States]].
  
-Although the sexual act can be an occasion of great intimacy and love resulting in new life, it also can be a violent or meaningless act resulting in profound alienation and fragmentation of the family. Among America'​s poor, the latter is increasingly the case. In 2013, 70.5 percent of children living below poverty were raised in non-intact families.((//​American Community Survey//, U.S. Census Bureau (2013).)) These poorest of the poor, more than anyone else, need the support of an intimate community and can least afford the community'​s destruction. The children of the poor have the greatest need for married families, yet they are the least likely to have them.+Although the sexual act can be an occasion of great intimacy and love resulting in new life, it also can be a violent or meaningless act resulting in profound alienation and fragmentation of the family. Among America'​s poor, the latter is increasingly the case. In 2013, 70.5 percent of children living below poverty were raised in [[effects_of_single_parents_on_poverty_rates|non-intact families]].((//​American Community Survey//, U.S. Census Bureau (2013).)) These poorest of the poor, more than anyone else, need the support of an intimate community and can least afford the [[effects_of_community_environment_on_juvenile_crime_rates|community'​s destruction]]. The children of the poor have the [[effects_of_marriage_on_child_poverty|greatest need for married families]], yet they are the least likely to have them.
  
-Traditionally,​ the variable used to explain a rise in the incidence of child abuse has been poverty. The National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect illustrates this pro-poverty bias.((Andrea J. Sedlak, Ph.D., and Diane D. Broadhurst, M.L.A., ​//The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect// ​(NIS-3): Final Report, ​U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, ​Washington, D.C., September 1996, p. 55.)) However, Richard Gelles of the University of Rhode Island Department of Sociology, a recognized expert on abuse, has shown that it is the presence or absence of adult support that makes the greatest difference in determining whether child abuse is likely to be present or absent within poor families.((Richard Gelles, "​Poverty and Violence Toward Children,"​ //American Behavioral Scientist//, Vol. 35, No. 3 (1992), pp. 258-274, and "Child Abuse and Violence in Single Parent Families,"​ //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​, Vol. 59 (October ​1989), pp. 492-501.)) ​The Fourth Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect has also confirmed this.+Traditionally,​ the variable used to explain a rise in the incidence of child abuse has been poverty. The National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect illustrates this pro-poverty bias.((U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect //The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect// ​Andrea J. Sedlak, Ph.D., and Diane D. Broadhurst, M.L.A., (NIS-3): Final Report, ​(Washington, D.C., September 1996), 55.)) However, Richard Gelles of the University of Rhode Island Department of Sociology, a recognized expert on abuse, has shown that it is the presence or absence of adult support that makes the greatest difference in determining whether ​[[demographics_of_child_abuse|child abuse is likely to be present]] or absent within poor families.((Richard Gelles, "​Poverty and Violence Toward Children,"​ //American Behavioral Scientist// 35, no. 3 (1992)258-274, and "Child Abuse and Violence in Single Parent Families,"​ //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 59 (1989)492-501.))
  
-Marriage ​provides the safest environment for children. ​It therefore truly makes a difference ​in advancing ​the safety and well-being ​of America'​children+The Fourth Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect has also confirmed that marriage ​provides the [[link_between_family_structure_and_child_abuse|safest environment for children]]This federal survey shows that the family environment with the lowest risk ratio for physical abuse is the intact married family: 
-=====2. The Non-Intact Family=====+  * **The rate of physical abuse is 3 times higher** ​in the single parent family. 
 +  * **The rate of physical abuse is 4 times higher** if mother is cohabiting with the child’biological father (unmarried)
 +  * **The rate of physical abuse is 5 times higher** if the child is living in a married step family. 
 +  * **The rate of physical abuse is 10 times higher** if the mother is cohabiting with a boyfriend.
  
-According to the professional literature, an abusing family tends not to be the traditional American family--that is, one in which the biological parents are married and raising their own children togetherMembers ​of an abusing family often fight over infidelity, and the primary parent frequently will change partners, causing stressful rearrangements of major family responsibilities and conflicts over the children. Other characteristics of these families include poor communication skills, inappropriate expectations of their children, and frequent alcohol and drug abuse. Occasionally the patterns of abuse documented in the professional literature are revealed dramatically in actual occurrences. A 1996 article in The Washington Post illustrates how cohabitation can relate to child abuse and the death of a child:+{{ :​relative_rates_of_physical_abuse.png?​direct&​500 |Relative Rates of Physical Abuse}}
  
-> On the night Bridgette was killed it was the child'​s "​sighing"​ that upset her father'​s girlfriend, then 20 and a student [who] was studying for an examAfter failed attempts ​to quiet the child, Davis watched as Meridin, who is not the child'​s mother, pushed Bridgette'​s forehead with her finger, picked the child up by her head and flung her toward himThen he and Meridin stuffed a pair of socks into Bridgette'​s mouth, placed a hooded sweat shirt backward around ​the child's head and secured it with duct tape. Bridgette then was placed ​in a closet and partially covered with clothesMeanwhile, Davis and Meridin sat down to eat dinner.((Robert E. Pierre, "​Father Tells of Night He Killed Child; He Says Toddler Upset Girlfriend by `Sighing,'"​ //The Washington Post//, September 14, 1996.))+For sexual abuse the rates are even higherCompared ​to the always intact married family: 
 +  * **The rate of sexual abuse is 5 times higher** in the single parent family ​and when both biological parents are cohabiting (i.e. unmarried). 
 +  * **The rate of sexual abuse is 8.6 times higher** if the child is living ​in a married step family. 
 +  * **The rate of sexual abuse is 20 times higher** if the mother is cohabiting with a boyfriend.
  
-Growing up is much more dangerous with cohabiting couplesSo are fights about infidelity and jealousya characteristic ​that may well be key in identifying ​the abusing family.((S. Salzinger, R. Feldman, M. Hammer, and M. Rosario"​Constellations ​of Family Violence ​and Their Differential Effects on Children'​s Behavioral Disturbances,"​ //Child & Family Behavior Therapy//, Vol14No. 4 (1992)pp. 23-41.)) Less able to talk through differences ​and difficulties ​and come to agreement,((B. L. Yegidis, "Family Violence: Contemporary Research Findings ​and Practice Issues," //Community Mental Health Journal//, Vol28, No. 6 (December 1992), pp. 519-530See also DKalmuss and JSeltzer, "A Framework for Studying Family Socialization Over the Life Cycle,"​ //​Journal ​of Family Issues//Vol. 10, Issue (1989), pp339-358.)) cohabiting couples frequently use force and aggression.((Linda N. Bly"Self-Help & Child Abuse: Victims, Victimizers & the Development of Self-Control," ​//Contemporary Family Therapy//, Vol. 10, No. 4 (1988), pp. 243-255.)) "​Normal"​ and stable families, on the other hand, typically exhibit a high level of agreement between parents and strong affection between parents and childrenboth of which result ​in much greater levels of agreement between adolescents and their parents. In addition, there is evidence that stable families participate ​at a higher rate in religious worship.((CPeek, J. Fischer, and BKidwell, "Teenage Violence Toward Parents: A Neglected Dimension of Family Violence," //Journal of Marriage ​and the Family//, Vol47, Issue 4 (1985), pp. 1051-1058. See also Patrick F. Fagan, "Why Religion Matters: The Impact of Religious Practice on Social Stability,"​ Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1064, January 25, 1996.)) Abuse can be tied to poverty, community, and marital status, even though not all poor, single, inner-city parents become abusers.+{{ :​relative_rates_of_sexual_abuse.png?​direct&​500 |Relative Rates of Sexual Abuse}} 
 + 
 +=====2. The Non-Intact Family===== 
 + 
 +According to the professional literaturean abusing family tends not to be the traditional American family--that is, one in which the biological parents are married and raising their own children together. Members of an abusing family ​often fight over infidelity, and the primary parent frequently will change partnerscausing stressful rearrangements ​of major family responsibilities ​and conflicts over the childrenOther characteristics of these families include poor communication skillsinappropriate expectations of their children, and frequent alcohol ​and drug abuse.  
 + 
 +Children with cohabiting parents are twice as likely ​to see their parents break up compared to children with married parents.((Wendy Manning, Pamela Smock, and Debarun Majumdar, "The Relative Stability of Cohabiting ​and Marital Unions for Children," //Population Research and Policy Review// 23no(2004): 135-159.)) This type of instability often leads to behavioral problemsOne study found that 15.7 percent ​of children from cohabiting households experienced behavioral problems in adolescencecompared with only 3.5 percent of children with married parents.((Gregory Acs and Sandi Nelson“The Kids are Alright? Children’s Well-Being and the Rise in Cohabitation,” //Urban Institute// (2002).)) "​Normal"​ and stable families typically exhibit a more healthy environmentas fewer teenage girls in married households initiate sex at a younger age or get [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|pregnant as teens]].((Ronald EBulanda, and Wendy DManning, "Parental Cohabitation Experiences and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes," //Population Research ​and Policy Review// 27no(2008).)) Abuse can be tied to [[link_between_family_structure_and_child_abuse|poverty]][[effect_of_community_environment_on_child_abuse|community]], and [[demographics_of_child_abuse|marital status]], even though not all poor, single, inner-city parents become abusers.
  
 ====2.1 Abusive Men==== ====2.1 Abusive Men====
  
-According to the studies, ​a boy severely abused by his father is very likely to become a violent adult.((P. Alexander, S. Moore, and E. Alexander, "What Is Transmitted in the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence?"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family//, Vol. 53 (August ​1991), pp. 657-667.)) Men who have witnessed their parentsor a parent ​and cohabiting non-parentphysically attack each other are three times as likely to hit their own wives or cohabiting females.((  The U.S. social science literature makes little to no distinction among biological married parents, stepparents,​ cohabiting biological parents, and cohabiting mother and boyfriend. The layperson needs to be aware that the words "wife," ​"​spouse," and "​partner" ​are used loosely and therefore fail to convey the information that would be helpful ​in clarifying the picture of the abusing familySee BCarlson"​Causes ​and Maintenance of Domestic ​Violence: ​An Ecological Analysis," ​//Social Service Review//, Vol58, Issue 4 (1984), pp. 569-587.)) Moreover, the effects of these early experiences with abuse and violence begin to show up at the beginning of their relationships with women in later years. ​Many of the background characteristics of wife-batterers ​exist in college ​men who engage ​in low-level courtship violence.((KMacEwen"​Refining the Intergenerational Transmission Hypothesis," ​//Journal of Interpersonal Violence//, Vol. 9, No(1994), pp. 350-365.)) Growing concerns about date rape should lead investigators to explore the early family histories of abusing males in more detail.+The intergenerational continuation theory of child abuse also affirms that a boy severely abused by his father is very likely to [[effects_of_abuse_on_children|become a violent adult]].((P. Alexander, S. Moore, and E. Alexander, "What Is Transmitted in the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence?"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family// ​no. 53 (1991)657-667. ​\\ Ricky Finzi-Dottan, and Galit Harel, "​Parents’ Potential for Child Abuse: An Intergenerational Perspective,"​ //Journal of Family Violence// 29, no. 4 (2014): 397-408.)) Specificallyone-third of sexually abusive men were sexually abused ​as a child.((Delphine Collin-Vézina, and Mireille Cyr, "Current Understanding about Intergenerational Transmission of Child Sexual Abuse," ​//Child Abuse & Neglect// 27, no. 5 (2003).)) Men who had witnessed conjugal violence ​and had experienced parent-child aggression as boys are more likely ​to use physical and verbal aggression ​in their relationships.((Nancy JShook, Deborah A. Gerrity, Joan Jurich, and Allen E. Segrist, “Courtship ​Violence ​Among College StudentsA Comparison of Verbally and Physically Abusive Couples,” //Journal of Family Violence// 15no(2000): 1-22)) Moreover, the effects of these early experiences with abuse and violence begin to show up at the beginning of their relationships with women in later years. ​One study found that wife batterers ​received significantly less love, more punishment from their mothers, and less attention from their fathers, than did men in a general population.((Clayton Neighbors, Denise DWalkerRoger A. RoffmanLyungai F. Mbilinyi, and Jeffrey L. Edleson, “Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing:​ Complementary Models to Elicit Voluntary Engagement by Partner-Abusive Men,​” ​//The American ​Journal of Family Therapy// 36no(2003): 126)) Growing concerns about date rape should lead investigators to explore the early family histories of abusing males in more detail.
  
-For abusing men, violence frequently is a way to regain what they see as their lost control of a relationship.((Linda N. Bly, "​Self-Help & Child Abuse: Victims, Victimizers & the Development of Self-Control,"​ //​Contemporary Family Therapy//, Vol. 10, No. 4 (1988), pp. 243-255.)) Conflict over children is likely to provoke this sense of a loss of control, and even to lead a couple to blows.((B. Carlson, "​Causes and Maintenance of Domestic Violence: An Ecological Analysis,"​ //Social Service Review//, Vol. 58, Issue 4 (1984), pp. 569-587.)) ​+For abusing men, violence frequently is a way to regain what they see as their lost control of a relationship.((Linda N. Bly, "​Self-Help & Child Abuse: Victims, Victimizers & the Development of Self-Control,"​ //​Contemporary Family Therapy// 10, no. 4 (1988)243-255.)) Conflict over children is likely to provoke this sense of a loss of control, and even to lead a couple to blows.((B. Carlson, "​Causes and Maintenance of Domestic Violence: An Ecological Analysis,"​ //Social Service Review// 58, no. 4 (1984)569-587.)) Additionally,​ abusing men tend to have more health concerns (including depression, paranoid ideation and more), feel more stress about parenting, and feel less empathy for their children.((Karen J. Francis, and David A. Wolfe, “Cognitive and Emotional Differences Between Abusive and Non-abusive Fathers,” //Child Abuse & Neglect// 32, no. 12, (2008).))
  
 ====2.2 Abusive Women==== ====2.2 Abusive Women====
  
-Contrary to public perception, research shows that the most likely physical abuser of a young child will be that child'​s mother, not a male in the household, although the mother'​s plight often is complicated by her relationship with a cohabiting male. Abusive mothers frequently are isolatedand lack the parental and extended family or peer support that is necessary to maintain their self-esteem and to buffer the stress of raising children.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, "​Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Potential,"​ //Journal of Family Violence//, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1990), pp. 15-34.)) Without this support, they often seek care and comfort from their children, treating these children as if they were older than they really are. When children fail to provide this support, the mother can become impatient, angry, and sometimes abusive, even when the child is only a crying infant. Others find any social stimulation from their babies (whether smiling or crying) to be much more irritating than normal mothers do.((Ann M. Frodi and Michael E. Lamb, "Child Abusers'​ Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries,"​ //Child Development//, ​Vol. 51 (1980), pp. 238-241.)) Their abuse in turn adds to their anxiety and feelings of helplessness.((Philip G. Ney, "​Relationship Between Induced Abortion and Child Abuse and Neglect: Four Studies,"​ //Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal//, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1993), pp. 43-63.)) If the woman is a second-generation or later generation out-of-wedlock mother, or if she is a teenager, she is less likely to know what the appropriate expectations of a young child should be.+Contrary to public perception, research shows that the most likely physical abuser of a young child will be that child'​s mother, not a male in the household, although the mother'​s plight often is complicated by her relationship with a cohabiting male. Abusive mothers frequently are isolated and lack the parental and extended family or peer support that is necessary to maintain their self-esteem and to buffer the stress of raising children.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, "​Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Potential,"​ //Journal of Family Violence// 5, no. 1 (1990)15-34.)) Women with higher levels of community involvement have lower feelings of psychological aggression and are less likely to abuse their child.((Bomi Kim, and Kathryn Maguire-Jack,​ “Community Interaction and Child Maltreatment,​” //Child Abuse & Neglect// 41, (2015): 146)) Without this support, they often seek care and comfort from their children, treating these children as if they were older than they really are. When children fail to provide this support, the mother can become impatient, angry, and sometimes abusive, even when the child is only a crying infant. Others find any social stimulation from their babies (whether smiling or crying) to be much more irritating than normal mothers do.((Ann M. Frodi and Michael E. Lamb, "Child Abusers'​ Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries,"​ //Child Development// ​51, (1980)238-241.)) Their abuse in turn adds to their anxiety and feelings of helplessness.((Philip G. Ney, "​Relationship Between Induced Abortion and Child Abuse and Neglect: Four Studies,"​ //Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal// 8, no. 1 (1993)43-63.)) If the woman is a second-generation or later generation ​[[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children|out-of-wedlock]] mother, or if she is a teenager, she is less likely to know what the appropriate expectations of a young child should be.
  
-Child-abusing mothers tend to have a distorted view of their children. Not surprisingly,​ they judge them more negatively than do outsiders and tend to ignore their good points, focusing only on transgressions. Typically, they often see their children'​s transgressions as more serious than they actually are. The good in their children they ascribe to circumstances,​ but the bad they ascribe to their character. They tell their children what not to do rather than what to do, and they use force and physical punishment much more frequently than do most other parents.((B. L. Yegidis, "​Family Violence: Contemporary Research Findings and Practice Issues,"​ //Community Mental Health Journal//, Vol. 28, No. 6 (December ​1992), pp. 519-530.))+Child-abusing mothers tend to have a distorted view of their children. Not surprisingly,​ they judge them more negatively than do outsiders and tend to ignore their good points, focusing only on transgressions. Typically, they often see their children'​s transgressions as more serious than they actually are. The good in their children they ascribe to circumstances,​ but the bad they ascribe to their character. They tell their children what not to do rather than what to do, and they use force and physical punishment much more frequently than do most other parents.((B. L. Yegidis, "​Family Violence: Contemporary Research Findings and Practice Issues,"​ //Community Mental Health Journal// 28, no. 6 (1992)519-530.))
    
-Child-abusing women also lack self-esteem and strength of will (termed "poor ego strength"​ by psychologists). They are more likely to be guided by their environment than by their own intentions (referred to as "​greater external locus of control"​). They are more depressed, feel rejecting of their children more often, withdraw from them often, use anger to control them, and in general show less affection toward them.((B. Carlson, "​Causes and Maintenance of Domestic Violence: An Ecological Analysis,"​ //Social Service Review//, ​Vol58, Issue 4 (1984), pp. 569-587.)) The child rejected by the mother frequently gets the most abuse. ​+Child-abusing women also lack self-esteem and strength of will (termed "poor ego strength"​ by psychologists). They are more likely to be guided by their environment than by their own intentions (referred to as "​greater external locus of control"​). They are more depressed, feel rejecting of their children more often, withdraw from them often, use anger to control them, andin generalshow less affection toward them.((B. Carlson, "​Causes and Maintenance of Domestic Violence: An Ecological Analysis,"​ //Social Service Review// ​58no. 4 (1984)569-587.)) The child rejected by the mother frequently gets the most abuse. ​ 
 + 
 +Child-abusing women often had poor quality relationships with their own mothers and experienced mother-daughter physical abuse as a child. Additionally,​ women who had been with partners for a short amount of time were more likely to physically abuse their children.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, “Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Children Abuse Potential,​” //Journal of Family Violence// 5, no. 1 (1990): 15-34. ))  ​
  
-The abusing mother is more likely to function at a lower intellectual level--with less ability to reason and understand her children and with fewer appropriate ways to handle them--than the nurturing mother.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, "​Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Potential,"​ //Journal of Family Violence//, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1990), pp. 15-34.)) John Bowlby of London'​s Tavistock Institute, one of the world'​s leading experts on the mother-infant relationship,​ concluded in a 1986 article that the absence of an early infant attachment between mother and daughter increases the likelihood that the daughter, as an adult, will abuse her own children.((J. Bowlby, "​Violence in the Family as a Disorder of the Attachment and Caregiving Systems,"​ //American Journal of Psychoanalysis//, ​Vol44, Issue 1 (1984), pp. 9-27.))+The abusing mother is more likely to function at a lower intellectual level--with less ability to reason and understand her children and with fewer appropriate ways to handle them--than the nurturing mother.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, "​Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Potential,"​ //Journal of Family Violence// 5, no. 1 (1990)15-34.)) John Bowlby of London'​s Tavistock Institute, one of the world'​s leading experts on the mother-infant relationship,​ concluded in a 1986 article that the absence of an early infant attachment between mother and daughter increases the likelihood that the daughter, as an adult, will abuse her own children.((J. Bowlby, "​Violence in the Family as a Disorder of the Attachment and Caregiving Systems,"​ //American Journal of Psychoanalysis// ​44no. 1 (1984)9-27.))
  
 ====2.3 Intergenerational Abuse==== ====2.3 Intergenerational Abuse====
  
-The most likely causes of child abuse by a mother, in fact, can be traced to the violence and substance abuse present in the mother'​s childhood, followed by the stress and discord in her current household. This is capped by her own victimization,​((S. Salzinger, ​R. Feldman, ​M. Hammer, and M. Rosario, ​"​Constellations ​of Family Violence and Their Differential Effects on Children's Behavioral ​Disturbances," //​Child ​Family Behavior Therapy//, Vol. 14, No. 4 (1992), pp. 23-41.)) and leads to increased illness and a hypersensitivity to the annoyances that children cause.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, ​"Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Potential," ​//Journal of Family Violence//, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1990), pp. 15-34.)) In the period between her early experience with abusing parents and her later experiences with an abusing "​mate,"​ the future abusing mother frequently becomes more aggressive and deviant, developing a hostile and rebellious way of acting. She will associate more with men of similar hostility and eventually will "​marry"​ them, becoming an abused spouse herself.((Ronald L. Simons, Christine Johnson, Jay Beaman, et al., "​Explaining Women'​s Double Jeopardy: Factors That Mediate the Association Between Harsh Treatment as a Child and Violence by a Husband,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family//, ​Vol55, Issue 3 (1993), pp. 713-723.)) ​+The most likely causes of child abuse by a mother, in fact, can be traced to the violence and substance abuse present in the mother'​s childhood, followed by the stress and discord in her current household. ​A woman with a history of child abuse, and who lived in a violent community and had lower authoritarian parenting styles has a more serious risk for [[demographics_of_child_abuse|intergenerational transmission]] of child abuse.((Kristin Valentino, Amy K. Nuttall, Michelle Comas, John G. Borkowski, and Carol E. Akai, “Intergenerational Continuity of Child Abuse Among Adolescent Mothers: Authoritarian Parenting, Community Violence, and Race,” //Child Maltreatment//​ 17, no 2 (2012). )) This is capped by her own victimization,​((Suzanne ​Salzinger, ​Richard S. Feldman, ​Muriel ​Hammer, and Margaret ​Rosario, ​“Constellation ​of Family Violence and Their Differential Effects on Childrens Behavioral ​Disturbance," //​Child ​and Family Behavior Therapy// 14, no. 4 (1993)23-41.)) and leads to increased illness and a hypersensitivity to the annoyances that children cause.((Joel S. Milner, Kevin R. Robertson, and Debbie L. Rogers, ​Childhood History of Abuse and Adult Children ​Abuse Potential,” //Journal of Family Violence// 5, no. 1 (1990)15-34.)) In the period between her early experience with abusing parents and her later experiences with an abusing "​mate,"​ the future abusing mother frequently becomes more aggressive and deviant, developing a hostile and rebellious way of acting. She will associate more with men of similar hostility and eventually will "​marry"​ them, becoming an abused spouse herself.((Ronald L. Simons, Christine Johnson, Jay Beaman, et al., "​Explaining Women'​s Double Jeopardy: Factors That Mediate the Association Between Harsh Treatment as a Child and Violence by a Husband,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family// ​55no. 3 (1993)713-723. ))
  
-Considering this type of family backgroundit is no wonder that abusing families((BL. Yegidis, "Family Violence: Contemporary Research Findings and Practice Issues," //Community Mental Health Journal//, Vol28, No. 6 (December ​1992), pp. 519-530.)) and mothers((J. Bowlby"​Violence in the Family as a Disorder of the Attachment and Caregiving Systems," ​//American Journal of Psychoanalysis//, Vol. 44Issue 1 (1984), pp. 9-27.)) often are the most isolated. Increasingly,​ this isolation is most evident in the poorest neighborhoods in the United States. According to the NIS-3 survey, these communities have the highest incidence of serious abuse.+Children are at risk of being abused if they are in families in which they see abuse. Thuschild abuse often is linked closely to abuse of the mother. Significantly,​ in one study, 90 percent of women residing in shelters for battered women and children said their children were in the same room or the next room while they were being abused.((Honore MHughes, "Impact of Spouse Abuse on Children of Battered Women," //Violence Update// 2no12 (1992).)) ​This is telling because abused ​mothers ​were eight times more likely to hurt their children when they were being battered than when they were safe from their violent partners.((Jann Jackson, //Intervention with Children Who Have Witnessed Abuse//, (House of RuthBaltimore, MD).))
  
-Children are at risk of being abused if they are in families in which they see abuse. Thuschild abuse often is linked closely to abuse of the motherSignificantlyin one study, 90 percent of women residing in shelters for battered women and children said their children were in the same room or the next room while they were being abused.((Honore MHughes, "Impact ​of Spouse Abuse on Children of Battered Women," //Violence Update//, Vol2, No. 12 (August 1992).)) This is telling because abused mothers were eight times more likely ​to hurt their children when they were being battered than when they were safe from their violent partners.((Jann Jackson"​Intervention with Children Who Have Witnessed Abuse," House of RuthBaltimoreMd.))+Considering this type of family backgroundit is no wonder that abusing families((Bonnie LYegidis“Family Violence: Contemporary Research Findings ​and Practice Issues,” //Community Mental Health Journal// 28, no(1992): 519-530. )) and mothers((JBowlby, "Violence in the Family as a Disorder ​of the Attachment and Caregiving Systems," //American Journal of Psychoanalysis// 44no.(1984): 9-27.)) often are the most isolated. Increasingly,​ this isolation ​is most evident in the poorest neighborhoods in the United States. According ​to the NIS-3 survey, these [[effect_of_community_environment_on_child_abuse|communities]] have the highest incidence of serious abuse.((SedlakMettenburgBasenaPettaMcPherson, Greene, and Li., //Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect//, 147))
  
-Tragically, changes in community moral norms over the past five decades are reflected in the profile of the child-killing mother. As compared with her counterpart 50 years ago, the mother who kills her children today is younger, has more children, and exhibits less of a conscience.((R. Weisheit, "When Mothers Kill Their Children,"​ //The Social Science Journal//, Vol. 23, No. 4 (1986), pp. 439-448.)) In addition, many of her children are born out of wedlock. The next generation of child abusers is being formed in this environmentmany will never know that children can be treated differently.+Tragically, changes in community moral norms over the past five decades are reflected in the profile of the [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|child-killing mother]]. As compared with her counterpart 50 years ago, the mother who kills her children today is younger, has more children, and exhibits less of a conscience.((R. Weisheit, "When Mothers Kill Their Children,"​ //The Social Science Journal// 23, no. 4 (1986)439-448
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 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​thf_media.s3.amazonaws.com/​1997/​pdf/​bg1115.pdf|The Child Abuse Crisis: The Disintegration of Marriage, Family, and the American Community]].)) In addition, many of her children are born out of wedlock. The next generation of child abusers is being formed in this environment, and many will never know that children can be treated differently.