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effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior [2015/11/10 08:59]
marri2
effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior [2017/05/16 09:58] (current)
marri [5.1 Related American Demographics]
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 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children'​s Health, children who live with both biological parents are less likely to exhibit behavior problems than those who do not.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf|Chart]])+According to the National Survey of Children'​s Health, children who live with both biological parents are less likely to exhibit behavior problems than those who do not.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-28-30-158.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-28-30-158.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf|{{ :behavior_problems_and_family_structure.png?400 |Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-28-30-158.pdf|{{ :child_behavior_problems_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]
  
 Similarly, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health shows that adolescents from intact married families are less frequently suspended, expelled, or delinquent, and less frequently experience [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|school problems]] than children from other family structures.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at  Similarly, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health shows that adolescents from intact married families are less frequently suspended, expelled, or delinquent, and less frequently experience [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|school problems]] than children from other family structures.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at 
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-20-family-structure-and-expulsion-or-suspension-from-school]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.
 \\ Paul R. Amato, “The Impact of Family Formation Change on the Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Wellbeing of the Next Generation,​” //Future of Children// 15, (2005): 86. \\ Paul R. Amato, “The Impact of Family Formation Change on the Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Wellbeing of the Next Generation,​” //Future of Children// 15, (2005): 86.
 \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 65, no. 4 (2003): 885-893. \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 65, no. 4 (2003): 885-893.
-\\ Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13, (1985): 599–661.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|Chart]])+\\ Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13, (1985): 599–661.)) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_expulsion_or_suspension_from_school.png?400 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|{{ :adolescents_suspended_or_expelled_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====2. Ability to Handle Conflict===== =====2. Ability to Handle Conflict=====
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 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 42.6 percent of adolescents living with one biological, cohabiting parent have been in a fight, whereas only 28.8 percent of those with two married parents have ever been in one. Among other family structures, 32.3 percent of adolescents living in stepfamilies,​ 36.7 percent of those living with two cohabiting biological parents, 39.5 percent of those whose parents are divorced, and 39.6 percent of those whose parents have never married have ever been in a fight. ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf|Chart]] )+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 42.6 percent of adolescents living with one biological, cohabiting parent have been in a fight, whereas only 28.8 percent of those with two married parents have ever been in one. Among other family structures, 32.3 percent of adolescents living in stepfamilies,​ 36.7 percent of those living with two cohabiting biological parents, 39.5 percent of those whose parents are divorced, and 39.6 percent of those whose parents have never married have ever been in a fight. ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-13-15-153.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|Chart]] )
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_fighting.png?400 |Ever Got Into a Fight by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|{{ :ever_got_into_a_fight_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Ever Got Into a Fight by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====3. Sexual Practice===== =====3. Sexual Practice=====
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 \\ Others have found that children of divorced parents are up to six times as likely to be delinquent as children from intact families. See David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 123.)) A 1985 study that tracked one thousand families with children ages six to 18 for six years found that children living in intact married families exhibited the least delinquency,​ while children with stepfathers were more likely to exhibit the most disruptive behavior. In this study, the behavior of single-parent children fell between that of children of intact and stepfather families.((Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-term and Long-term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13, (1985): 599-661.)) \\ Others have found that children of divorced parents are up to six times as likely to be delinquent as children from intact families. See David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 123.)) A 1985 study that tracked one thousand families with children ages six to 18 for six years found that children living in intact married families exhibited the least delinquency,​ while children with stepfathers were more likely to exhibit the most disruptive behavior. In this study, the behavior of single-parent children fell between that of children of intact and stepfather families.((Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-term and Long-term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13, (1985): 599-661.))
  
-Parental divorce contributes to what some studies term “externalizing behaviors,​” which include weapon carrying, fighting, substance abuse, and binge drinking.((Kathleen B. Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors Among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 1028-1029.)) Another study found that the sons of divorced parents are at no greater risk of involvement in delinquent behavior than boys living in intact families if the mother and father “engage in competent parenting.”((Ronald L. Simons, Kuei-Hsiu Lin, Leslie C. Gordon, Rand D. Conger, and Frederick O. Lorenz, “Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems Among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61, (1999): 1030.)) Good parenting on the part of divorced fathers achieved no such effects for the daughters of divorce, according to this same study. Among adolescent girls, there is a strong correlation between family structure and delinquency,​((Karen Heimer, “Gender, Interaction,​ and Delinquency:​ Testing a Theory of Differential Social Control,” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 59, (1996): 39-61 \\ Sofie Vanassche, An K. Sodermans, Koen Matthijs, and Gray Swicegood, "The Effects of Family Type, Family Relationships and Parental Role Models on Delinquency and Alcohol Use Among Flemish Adolescents,"​ //Journal Of Child & Family Studies// 23, no. 1 (2014): 135.)) hostile behavior,​((Bilge Pakiz, Helen Z. Reinherz, and Rose M. Giaconia, “Early Risk Factors for Serious Antisocial Behavior at Age 21: A Longitudinal Community Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 67, (1997): 92-100.)) drug use, larceny, skipping school,​((Neil Kalter, Barbara Riemer, Arthur Brickman, and Jade Woo Chen, “Implications of Parental Divorce for Female Development,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, no. 5 (1985): 538-544.)) and alcohol abuse.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60, (1990): 544-555. \\ R.G. Thompson,  ​D. Alonzo, ​B.F. Grant, and D.S. Hasin, "​Parental Divorce, Maternal–Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence,"​ //Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions//​ 13, no. 3 (2013): 295, 302.))+Parental divorce contributes to what some studies term “externalizing behaviors,​” which include weapon carrying, fighting, substance abuse, and binge drinking.((Kathleen B. Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors Among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 1028-1029.)) Another study found that the sons of divorced parents are at no greater risk of involvement in delinquent behavior than boys living in intact families if the mother and father “engage in competent parenting.”((Ronald L. Simons, Kuei-Hsiu Lin, Leslie C. Gordon, Rand D. Conger, and Frederick O. Lorenz, “Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems Among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61, (1999): 1030.)) Good parenting on the part of divorced fathers achieved no such effects for the daughters of divorce, according to this same study. Among adolescent girls, there is a strong correlation between family structure and delinquency,​((Karen Heimer, “Gender, Interaction,​ and Delinquency:​ Testing a Theory of Differential Social Control,” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 59, (1996): 39-61 \\ Sofie Vanassche, An K. Sodermans, Koen Matthijs, and Gray Swicegood, "The Effects of Family Type, Family Relationships and Parental Role Models on Delinquency and Alcohol Use Among Flemish Adolescents,"​ //Journal Of Child & Family Studies// 23, no. 1 (2014): 135.)) hostile behavior,​((Bilge Pakiz, Helen Z. Reinherz, and Rose M. Giaconia, “Early Risk Factors for Serious Antisocial Behavior at Age 21: A Longitudinal Community Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 67, (1997): 92-100.)) drug use, larceny, skipping school,​((Neil Kalter, Barbara Riemer, Arthur Brickman, and Jade Woo Chen, “Implications of Parental Divorce for Female Development,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, no. 5 (1985): 538-544.)) and alcohol abuse.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60, (1990): 544-555. \\ Ronald ​G. Thompson,  ​Dana Alonzo, ​Bridget ​F. Grant, and Deborah ​S. Hasin, "​Parental Divorce, Maternal–Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence,"​ //Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions//​ 13, no. 3 (2013): 295, 302.))
  
 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 13 percent of children who live in an intact married family admit to having stolen at least $50 worth of goods. By comparison, 19 percent of children whose parents never married or are divorced, 20 percent of children living with a stepparent, 15 percent of those living with cohabiting biological parents, and 23 percent of those living with one cohabiting biological parent have stolen at least $50 worth of goods.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ P.F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf00]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 13 percent of children who live in an intact married family admit to having stolen at least $50 worth of goods. By comparison, 19 percent of children whose parents never married or are divorced, 20 percent of children living with a stepparent, 15 percent of those living with cohabiting biological parents, and 23 percent of those living with one cohabiting biological parent have stolen at least $50 worth of goods.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick ​F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_theft.png?400 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|{{ :theft_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====5. Drugs and Alcohol===== =====5. Drugs and Alcohol=====
  
-Parental divorce (as previously stated) predicts externalizing behavior, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption and binge drinking,((K.B. Rodgers and H.A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 1028-1029.)) and marijuana use.((J.P. Hoffmann, “Exploring the Direct and Indirect Family Effects on Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Drug Issues// 23, (1993): 535-557. \\ J. Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296.)) Parental divorce or separation also predicts increased adolescent use of other illegal drugs.((R.H. Needle, S.S. Su, and W.J. Doherty, “Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 52, (1990): 162 \\ K. Breivik and D. Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Structures: Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 115.)) The negative effects of divorce on adolescent substance use are not temporary, and tend to persist over time.((J. Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296))+Parental divorce (as previously stated) predicts externalizing behavior, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption and binge drinking,((Kathleen ​B. Rodgers and Hilary ​A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 1028-1029.)) and marijuana use.((John P. Hoffmann, “Exploring the Direct and Indirect Family Effects on Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Drug Issues// 23, (1993): 535-557. \\ Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296.)) Parental divorce or separation also predicts increased adolescent use of other illegal drugs.((R.H. Needle, S.S. Su, and W.J. Doherty, “Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 52, (1990): 162 \\ Kyrre Breivik and Dan Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Structures: Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 115.)) The negative effects of divorce on adolescent substance use are not temporary, and tend to persist over time.((Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296))
  
-Men who experienced their parents’ divorce as children (between ages seven and 16) are more likely to smoke as adults.((F.F. Furstenberg and K.E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 453.)) Males who have experienced parental divorce are also more likely to use alcohol and drugs.((W.J. Doherty and R.H. Needle, “Psychological Adjustment and Substance Use among Adolescents Before and After a Parental Divorce,” //Child Development//​ 62, (1991): 332. \\ J. Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 293, 296.)) Women who experienced parental divorce between ages seven and 16 (but not those whose parents divorced later) are more likely to smoke and to drink heavily as adults than women whose parents remained married.((F.F. Furstenberg and K.E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 452.)) One study found that, in families where the mother-daughter relationship was satisfying, parental divorce and maternal nonresidence led to delinquent behavior in girls. ((T.M. Videon, “The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parental Separation on Adolescent Well-being,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 498))+Men who experienced their parents’ divorce as children (between ages seven and 16) are more likely to smoke as adults.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen ​E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 453.)) Males who have experienced parental divorce are also more likely to use alcohol and drugs.((William ​J. Doherty and Richard ​H. Needle, “Psychological Adjustment and Substance Use among Adolescents Before and After a Parental Divorce,” //Child Development//​ 62, (1991): 332. \\ Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 293, 296.)) Women who experienced parental divorce between ages seven and 16 (but not those whose parents divorced later) are more likely to smoke and to drink heavily as adults than women whose parents remained married.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen ​E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 452.)) One study found that, in families where the mother-daughter relationship was satisfying, parental divorce and maternal nonresidence led to delinquent behavior in girls. ((Tami M. Videon, “The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parental Separation on Adolescent Well-being,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 498))
  
 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), children who live with both biological parents are less likely to get drunk than adolescents with stepparents,​ one biological cohabiting parent, or divorced parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ P.F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Drinking,"​ Mapping America Projects. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), children who live with both biological parents are less likely to get drunk than adolescents with stepparents,​ one biological cohabiting parent, or divorced parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick ​F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Drinking,"​ Mapping America Projects. Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-16-18-154.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-16-18-154.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_drinking.png?400 |Getting Drunk by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-16-18-154.pdf|{{ :adolescents_who_got_drunk_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Getting Drunk by Family Structure}}]]
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, more than 15 percent of adolescents whose parents are divorced have used hard drugs; this figure rises to roughly 18 percent for children living with a stepparent or one biological cohabiting parent.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ P.F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Adolescent Use of Hard Drugs,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08F26.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08F26.pdf| Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, more than 15 percent of adolescents whose parents are divorced have used hard drugs; this figure rises to roughly 18 percent for children living with a stepparent or one biological cohabiting parent.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick ​F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Adolescent Use of Hard Drugs,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-7-9-151.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-7-9-151.pdf| Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08F26.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_adolescent_use_of_hard_drugs.png?400 |Hard Drug Use by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-7-9-151.pdf|{{ :adolescent_hard_drug_use_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Hard Drug Use by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====6. Suicide===== =====6. Suicide=====
  
-Child suicide is often triggered by thoughts that his divorced parents reject him((D.B. Larson, ​J.P. Swyers, and S.S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 126. \\ S.A Fotti, et al., "The Associations Between Peer and Parental Relationships and Suicidal Behaviours in Early Adolescents,"​ //Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry//​ 51, no. 11 (October 2006): 698, 700.)) or have lost interest in him.((J.S. Wodarski and P. Harris, “Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Influences and the Means for Prevention,​” //Social Work// 32, (1987): 479.)) The fact that the suicide rate has risen along with the divorce rate is no coincidence.((R.J. Cebula and T.V. Zelenskaya, “Determinants of Youth Suicide: A Friendly Comment with Suggestions,​” //American Journal of Economics and Sociology// 65, no. 4 (2006): 996.)) One study reported that risk of a suicide attempt was higher in divorced families, though the association was eliminated after controlling for adverse experiences.((J. Hardt, A. Sidor, R. Nickel, B. Kappis, P. Petrak, and U.T. Egle, “Childhood Adversities and Suicide Attempts: A Retrospective Study,” //Journal of Family Violence// 23, (2008): 716.)) As the work of Patricia McCall, a sociology professor at North Carolina State University, shows, the strongest demographic indicator of suicide is the family structure within which a person resides: the divorced family structure has the highest suicide rate.((P.L. McCall and K.C. Land, “Trends in White Male Adolescent, Young-Adult,​ and Elderly Suicide: Are There Common Underlying Structural Factors?” //Social Science Research// 23, (1994): 57-81. \\ D. Alonzo, R.G. Thompson, M. Stohl, and D. Hasin, "The Influence of Parental Divorce and Alcohol Abuse on Adult Offspring Risk of Lifetime Suicide Attempt in the United States,"​ //American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry//​ 84, no. 3 (2014): 316, 318.)) For adults, having children decreases the parents’ risk of suicide.((J. T. Denney, “Family and Household Formations and Suicide in the United States,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 72, (2010): 202, 208-209.))+Child suicide is often triggered by thoughts that his divorced parents reject him((David B. Larson, ​James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 126. \\ S.A Fotti, et al., "The Associations Between Peer and Parental Relationships and Suicidal Behaviours in Early Adolescents,"​ //Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry//​ 51, no. 11 (October 2006): 698, 700.)) or have lost interest in him.((John S. Wodarski and Pamela ​Harris, “Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Influences and the Means for Prevention,​” //Social Work// 32, (1987): 479.)) The fact that the suicide rate has risen along with the divorce rate is no coincidence.((Richard ​J. Cebula and Tatyana ​V. Zelenskaya, “Determinants of Youth Suicide: A Friendly Comment with Suggestions,​” //American Journal of Economics and Sociology// 65, no. 4 (2006): 996.)) One study reported that risk of a suicide attempt was higher in divorced families, though the association was eliminated after controlling for adverse experiences.((J. Hardt, A. Sidor, R. Nickel, B. Kappis, P. Petrak, and U.T. Egle, “Childhood Adversities and Suicide Attempts: A Retrospective Study,” //Journal of Family Violence// 23, (2008): 716.)) As the work of Patricia McCall, a sociology professor at North Carolina State University, shows, the strongest demographic indicator of suicide is the family structure within which a person resides: the divorced family structure has the highest suicide rate.((Patricia ​L. McCall and Kenneth ​C. Land, “Trends in White Male Adolescent, Young-Adult,​ and Elderly Suicide: Are There Common Underlying Structural Factors?” //Social Science Research// 23, (1994): 57-81. \\ D. Alonzo, R.G. Thompson, M. Stohl, and D. Hasin, "The Influence of Parental Divorce and Alcohol Abuse on Adult Offspring Risk of Lifetime Suicide Attempt in the United States,"​ //American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry//​ 84, no. 3 (2014): 316, 318.)) For adults, having children decreases the parents’ risk of suicide.((Justin ​T. Denney, “Family and Household Formations and Suicide in the United States,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 72, (2010): 202, 208-209.))
  
-Women from divorced families are 1.46 times as likely to attempt suicide as women from intact families.((D. Lizardi, R.G. Thompson, K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “The Role of Depression in the Differential Effect of Childhood Parental Divorce on Male and Female Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt Risk,” //The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 198, no. 9 (2010): 689.)) An earlier study by the same author found that women raised in divorced families are 1.33 times as likely to attempt suicide; this finding holds true even after adjusting for various confounding factors, such as age, race, and income.((D. Lizardi, R.G. Thompson, K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “Parental Divorce, Parental Depression, and Gender Differences in Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt,” //Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 197, (2009): 901.)) This link between parental divorce and the rise in adolescent suicide has been found again and again in the literature.((D.B. Larson, ​J.P. Swyers, and S.S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 124. +Women from divorced families are 1.46 times as likely to attempt suicide as women from intact families.((D. Lizardi, R.G. Thompson, K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “The Role of Depression in the Differential Effect of Childhood Parental Divorce on Male and Female Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt Risk,” //The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 198, no. 9 (2010): 689.)) An earlier study by the same author found that women raised in divorced families are 1.33 times as likely to attempt suicide; this finding holds true even after adjusting for various confounding factors, such as age, race, and income.((D. Lizardi, R.G. Thompson, K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “Parental Divorce, Parental Depression, and Gender Differences in Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt,” //Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 197, (2009): 901.)) This link between parental divorce and the rise in adolescent suicide has been found again and again in the literature.((David B. Larson, ​James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 124. 
 C.N. Velez and P. Cohen, “Suicidal Behavior and Ideation in a Community Sample of Children: Maternal and Youth Reports,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry//​ 27, (1988): 349-356. ​ C.N. Velez and P. Cohen, “Suicidal Behavior and Ideation in a Community Sample of Children: Maternal and Youth Reports,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry//​ 27, (1988): 349-356. ​
-\\ F.L. Nelson, ​N.L. Farberow, and R.E. Litman, “Youth Suicide in California: A Comparative Study of Perceived Causes and Interventions,​” //Community Mental Health Journal// 24, (1988): 31-42.)) Cross-cultural studies of Japan and the United States have clearly demonstrated the link between divorce and suicidal thought.((D. Lester and K. Abe, “The Regional Variation of Divorce Rates in Japan and the United States,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 18, (1993): 227-230.+\\ Franklyn ​L. Nelson, ​Norman ​L. Farberow, and Robert ​E. Litman, “Youth Suicide in California: A Comparative Study of Perceived Causes and Interventions,​” //Community Mental Health Journal// 24, (1988): 31-42.)) Cross-cultural studies of Japan and the United States have clearly demonstrated the link between divorce and suicidal thought.((David Lester and Kazuhiko ​Abe, “The Regional Variation of Divorce Rates in Japan and the United States,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 18, (1993): 227-230.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].))