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effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior [2015/10/20 07:02]
marri [4.1 Related American Demographics]
effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior [2017/05/16 09:56]
marri [5.1 Related American Demographics]
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 ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Behavior========== ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Behavior==========
  
-Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased behavioral problems,​((Donna ​Ruane Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61 (1999): 626. \\ Weaver, ​Jennifer M., and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and moderation ​of divorce effects ​on children’s behavior problems," //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43, 45.)) and the marital conflict that accompanies parents’ divorce places the child’s [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills|social competence]] at risk. Even in intact families that have low to medium levels of conflict, children still have “fewer behavior problems than those in the high-conflict,​ disrupted families.”((Donna ​Ruane Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61 (1999): 634.)) Another study suggests that parental conflict affects the outcomes of children’s behavior problems, regardless of parents’ marital status, and sometimes “there is no statistical difference in the level of behavior problems observed for children whose parents separated or divorced and for children whose parents remained together.”((Donna Ruane Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61 (1999): 632.)) Overall, young adults are best off when raised by two continuously married parents with a low-conflict relationship.((Sobolewski, ​Juliana M.and Paul R. Amato, "​Parents' ​discord ​and divorceparent-child relationships ​and subjective well-being in early adulthood: Is feeling close to two parents always better than feeling close to one?," //Social Forces// 85, no. 3 (2007): 1121.))+Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased behavioral problems,​((Donna ​R. Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61(1999): 626. \\ Jennifer M. Weaver and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and Moderation ​of Divorce Effects ​on Children’s Behavior Problems," //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43, 45.)) and the marital conflict that accompanies parents’ divorce places the child’s [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills|social competence]] at risk. Even in intact families that have low to medium levels of conflict, children still have “fewer behavior problems than those in the high-conflict,​ disrupted families.”((Donna ​R. Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61(1999): 634.)) Another study suggests that parental conflict affects the outcomes of children’s behavior problems, regardless of parents’ marital status, and sometimes “there is no statistical difference in the level of behavior problems observed for children whose parents separated or divorced and for children whose parents remained together.”((D.R. Morrison and M.J. Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61(1999): 632.)) Overall, young adults are best off when raised by two continuously married parents with a low-conflict relationship.((Juliana M. Sobolewski ​and Paul R. Amato, "​Parents' ​Discord ​and DivorceParent-Child Relationships ​and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better Than Feeling Close to One?," //Social Forces// 85, no. 3 (2007): 1121.))
  
-During a divorce, conflict between parents is often accompanied by less affection, less responsiveness,​ and more inclination to punish their children, which leaves their children feeling emotionally insecure.((Patrick T. Davies and E. Mark Cummings, “Marital ​conflict ​and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis,” //​Psychological Bulletin// 116 (1994): 387-411. As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 137. \\ McCoy, Kathleen ​P., et al, "​Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children'​s School and Social Adjustment,"​ //Social Development//​ 22, no. 4 (November 2013): 641.)) These children are more likely to perceive their social milieu as unpredictable and uncontrollable.((Paul R. Amato, //Children in Australian Families: The Growth of Competence//,​ (Sydney: Prentice Hall of Australia, 1987). As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 137.)) Children who engage in [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|fighting and stealing]] at school are far more likely to come from broken homes than are well-behaved children.((Rex Forehand, “Family Characteristics of Adolescents Who Display Overt and Covert Behavior Problems,​” //Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry//​ 18 (1987): 325-328.)) Children of divorced families are more than twice as likely to [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|drop out of high school]] than children from intact families.((Song, Chunyan, Mary Benin, and Jennifer Glick, "​Dropping Out of High School: The Effects of Family Structure and Family Transitions,"​ //Journal of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 53, no. 1 (January ​2012): 28-29.)) Other studies have confirmed that children of divorced parents exhibit more behavioral problems than do children from intact families.((Jeffrey J. Wood, Rena L. Repetti, and Scott C. Roesch, “Divorce and Children’s Adjustment Problems at Home and School: The Role of Depressive/​Withdrawn Parenting,​” //Child Psychiatry and Human Development//​ 35, no. 2 (2004): 131.)) Boys whose parents divorced while they were in elementary school tend to develop problems in the years following their parents’ separation. While problem behavior increases immediately following the divorce among boys whose parents divorced while they were in middle school, their problem behavior steadily decreases in the year after the divorce.((Patrick ​S. Malone, ​Jennifer ​E. Lansford, ​Domini ​R. Castellino, ​Lisa J. Berlin, ​Kenneth ​A. Dodge, ​John E. Bates, and Gregory ​S. Pettit, “Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data,” //​Structural Equation Modeling// 11, no. 3 (2004): 417.))+During a divorce, conflict between parents is often accompanied by less affection, less responsiveness,​ and more inclination to punish their children, which leaves their children feeling emotionally insecure.((Patrick T. Davies and E. Mark Cummings, “Marital ​Conflict ​and Child Adjustment: An Emotional Security Hypothesis,” //​Psychological Bulletin// 116(1994): 387-411. As cited in Paul R. Amato and Arland ​Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 137. \\ K.P. McCoy et al, "​Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children'​s School and Social Adjustment,"​ //Social Development//​ 22, no. 4 (November 2013): 641.)) These children are more likely to perceive their social milieu as unpredictable and uncontrollable.((Paul R. Amato, //Children in Australian Families: The Growth of Competence//,​ (Sydney: Prentice Hall of Australia, 1987). As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 137.)) Children who engage in [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|fighting and stealing]] at school are far more likely to come from broken homes than are well-behaved children.((R. Forehand, “Family Characteristics of Adolescents Who Display Overt and Covert Behavior Problems,​” //Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry//​ 18(1987): 325-328.)) Children of divorced families are more than twice as likely to [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|drop out of high school]] than children from intact families.((Chunyan ​Song, Mary Benin, and Jennifer Glick, "​Dropping Out of High School: The Effects of Family Structure and Family Transitions,"​ //Journal of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 53, no. 1 (2012): 28-29.)) Other studies have confirmed that children of divorced parents exhibit more behavioral problems than do children from intact families.((Jeffrey J. Wood, Rena L. Repetti, and Scott C. Roesch, “Divorce and Children’s Adjustment Problems at Home and School: The Role of Depressive/​Withdrawn Parenting,​” //Child Psychiatry and Human Development//​ 35, no. 2 (2004): 131.)) Boys whose parents divorced while they were in elementary school tend to develop problems in the years following their parents’ separation. While problem behavior increases immediately following the divorce among boys whose parents divorced while they were in middle school, their problem behavior steadily decreases in the year after the divorce.((P.S. Malone, ​J.E. Lansford, ​D.R. Castellino, ​L.J. Berlin, ​K.A. Dodge, ​J.E. Bates, and G.S. Pettit, “Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data,” //​Structural Equation Modeling// 11, no. 3 (2004): 417.))
  
 =====1. Behavior at School===== =====1. Behavior at School=====
  
-Divorce and separation correlate positively with [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|diminished school achievement and performance]].((Milling Kinard and Helen Reinherz, “Effects of Marital Disruption on Children’s School Aptitude and Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 48 (1986): 289-290.  +Divorce and separation correlate positively with [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|diminished school achievement and performance]].((Milling Kinard and Helen Reinherz, “Effects of Marital Disruption on Children’s School Aptitude and Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 48(1986): 289-290.  
-\\ Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15 (2001): 355-370.)) Children from intact families have fewer behavioral [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|problems in school]].((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65 (November 2003): 876–893. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​35/​family-structure-and-childrens-education]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.  +\\ Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15(2001): 355-370.)) Children from intact families have fewer behavioral [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|problems in school]].((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65(November 2003): 876–893. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​35/​family-structure-and-childrens-education]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.  
-\\ Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “Consequences of parental divorce ​and marital unhappiness ​for adult well-being,” //Social Forces// 69 (1991): 895–914.  +\\ Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “Consequences of Parental Divorce ​and Marital Unhappiness ​for Adult Well-Being,” //Social Forces// 69(1991): 895–914.  
-\\ James S. Coleman, et al., //Equality of Educational Opportunity//,​ U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., 1966.  +\\ James S. Coleman, et al., //Equality of Educational Opportunity// ​(WashingtonD.C.:U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1966).  
-\\ Ruth B. Ekstrom, et al., “Who ​drops out of school ​and why: Findings ​from national study,” //Teachers College Record// 87 (1986): 356-73. ​+\\ Ruth B. Ekstrom, et al., “Who ​Drops Out of School ​and Why: Findings ​From National Study,” //Teachers College Record// 87(1986): 356-73. ​
 \\ D.R. Featherstone,​ B.P. Cundick, and L.C. Jensen, “Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconsituted,​ and Single-Parent Families,​” //​Adolescence//​ 27, no. 105 (1992): 1-12.  \\ D.R. Featherstone,​ B.P. Cundick, and L.C. Jensen, “Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconsituted,​ and Single-Parent Families,​” //​Adolescence//​ 27, no. 105 (1992): 1-12. 
-\\ Debra J. Mulholland, et al., “Academic ​performance ​in children ​of divorce: Psychological ​resilience ​and vulnerability,” //​Psychiatry//​ 54 (1991): 268-280.)) For example, first-grade children born to married mothers are less likely to exhibit disruptive behavior, such as disobeying a teacher or behaving aggressively towards peers, than children born to cohabiting or single mothers.((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (September 2006): 551-581.)) ​+\\ Debra J. Mulholland, et al., “Academic ​Performance ​in Children ​of Divorce: Psychological ​Resilience ​and Vulnerability,” //​Psychiatry//​ 54(1991): 268-280.)) For example, first-grade children born to married mothers are less likely to exhibit disruptive behavior, such as disobeying a teacher or behaving aggressively towards peers, than children born to cohabiting or single mothers.((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Huston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (September 2006): 551-581.)) ​
  
 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children'​s Health, children who live with both biological parents are less likely to exhibit behavior problems than those who do not.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf|Chart]])+According to the National Survey of Children'​s Health, children who live with both biological parents are less likely to exhibit behavior problems than those who do not.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-28-30-158.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-28-30-158.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K10.pdf|{{ :behavior_problems_and_family_structure.png?400 |Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-28-30-158.pdf|{{ :child_behavior_problems_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]
  
 Similarly, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health shows that adolescents from intact married families are less frequently suspended, expelled, or delinquent, and less frequently experience [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|school problems]] than children from other family structures.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at  Similarly, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health shows that adolescents from intact married families are less frequently suspended, expelled, or delinquent, and less frequently experience [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|school problems]] than children from other family structures.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at 
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-20-family-structure-and-expulsion-or-suspension-from-school]]. Accessed 22 September 2011. +[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf]]. Accessed 22 September 2011. 
-\\ Paul R. Amato, “The Impact of Family Formation Change on the Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Wellbeing of the Next Generation,​” //Future of Children//15 (2005): 86.+\\ Paul R. Amato, “The Impact of Family Formation Change on the Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Wellbeing of the Next Generation,​” //Future of Children// 15(2005): 86.
 \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 65, no. 4 (2003): 885-893. \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 65, no. 4 (2003): 885-893.
-\\ A.U. Rickel and T.S. Langer, “Short-term and long-term effects ​of marital disruption ​on children,” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13 (1985): 599–661.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|Chart]])+\\ Annette ​U. Rickel and Thomas ​S. Langer, “Short-Term and Long-Term Effects ​of Marital Disruption ​on Children,” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13(1985): 599–661.)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-19-21-155.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_expulsion_or_suspension_from_school.png?400 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|{{ :adolescents_suspended_or_expelled_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====2. Ability to Handle Conflict===== =====2. Ability to Handle Conflict=====
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 Divorce diminishes children’s capacity to handle conflict. The difference between marriages that remain intact and those that end in divorce lies primarily in the couple’s ability to handle marital conflict and move towards agreement. Parental modeling in divorce diminishes many children’s capacity for [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|stable marriage later in life]], though some children may react by doubling their efforts to ensure stability. Divorce diminishes children’s capacity to handle conflict. The difference between marriages that remain intact and those that end in divorce lies primarily in the couple’s ability to handle marital conflict and move towards agreement. Parental modeling in divorce diminishes many children’s capacity for [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|stable marriage later in life]], though some children may react by doubling their efforts to ensure stability.
  
-For instance, compared to students from intact families, college students from divorced families use violence more frequently to resolve conflict and are more likely to be aggressive and physically violent with their friends, male or female.((Robert E. Billingham and Nicole L. Notebaert, “Divorce and Dating Violence Revisited: Multivariate Analyses Using Straus’s Conflict Tactics Subscores,​” //​Psychological Reports// 73 (1993): 679-684.)) Parental divorce during adolescence frequently leads to more violent partnerships in adolescence and adulthood.((Fergusson, ​David M., Geraldine F. H. McLeod, and L. John Horwood, "​Parental ​separation/divorce ​in childhood ​and partnership outcomes ​at age 30," //Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry//​ 55, no. 4 (April 2014): 357.)) ​+For instance, compared to students from intact families, college students from divorced families use violence more frequently to resolve conflict and are more likely to be aggressive and physically violent with their friends, male or female.((Robert E. Billingham and Nicole L. Notebaert, “Divorce and Dating Violence Revisited: Multivariate Analyses Using Straus’s Conflict Tactics Subscores,​” //​Psychological Reports// 73(1993): 679-684.)) Parental divorce during adolescence frequently leads to more violent partnerships in adolescence and adulthood.((David M. Fergusson Geraldine F. H. McLeod, and L. John Horwood, "​Parental ​Separation/Divorce ​in Childhood ​and Partnership Outcomes ​at Age 30," //Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry//​ 55, no. 4 (2014): 357.)) ​
  
-In their own marriages, [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|children of divorced parents]] are more likely to be unhappy, to escalate conflict, to communicate less, to argue frequently, and to shout or to physically assault their spouse when arguing.((Pamela S. Webster, Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 101 (1995): 404-432. \\ Rhoades, ​Galena K., et al, "​Parents'​ Marital Status, Conflict, and Role Modeling: Links With Adult Romantic Relationship Quality,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 53, no. 5 (July 2012): 348, 358.)) Thus, the likelihood of divorce is transmitted [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|across generations]].((Researchers have found that the children of violent parents do better if their parents separate. However, if the parents’ conflict is not violent or intense, their children fare better in their own marriages if their parents remain married. Obviously, the best solution for all concerned is that parents learn how to handle conflict and to cooperate with each other, thereby restoring family harmony.))+In their own marriages, [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|children of divorced parents]] are more likely to be unhappy, to escalate conflict, to communicate less, to argue frequently, and to shout or to physically assault their spouse when arguing.((Pamela S. Webster, Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 101(1995): 404-432. \\ Galena K. Rhoades, et al, "​Parents'​ Marital Status, Conflict, and Role Modeling: Links With Adult Romantic Relationship Quality,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 53, no. 5 (2012): 348, 358.)) Thus, the likelihood of divorce is transmitted [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|across generations]].((Researchers have found that the children of violent parents do better if their parents separate. However, if the parents’ conflict is not violent or intense, their children fare better in their own marriages if their parents remain married. Obviously, the best solution for all concerned is that parents learn how to handle conflict and to cooperate with each other, thereby restoring family harmony.))
  
 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 42.6 percent of adolescents living with one biological, cohabiting parent have been in a fight, whereas only 28.8 percent of those with two married parents have ever been in one. Among other family structures, 32.3 percent of adolescents living in stepfamilies,​ 36.7 percent of those living with two cohabiting biological parents, 39.5 percent of those whose parents are divorced, and 39.6 percent of those whose parents have never married have ever been in a fight. ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf|Chart]] )+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 42.6 percent of adolescents living with one biological, cohabiting parent have been in a fight, whereas only 28.8 percent of those with two married parents have ever been in one. Among other family structures, 32.3 percent of adolescents living in stepfamilies,​ 36.7 percent of those living with two cohabiting biological parents, 39.5 percent of those whose parents are divorced, and 39.6 percent of those whose parents have never married have ever been in a fight. ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-13-15-153.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|Chart]] )
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H09.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_fighting.png?400 |Ever Got Into a Fight by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|{{ :ever_got_into_a_fight_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Ever Got Into a Fight by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====3. Sexual Practice===== =====3. Sexual Practice=====
 //(See [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Sexual Activity]])//​ //(See [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Sexual Activity]])//​
  
-When parents divorce, their children’s approval of premarital sex, cohabitation,​ and divorce tends to rise dramatically,​ while their endorsement of marriage and childbearing falls.((William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33 (1996): 66-81.  +When parents divorce, their children’s approval of premarital sex, cohabitation,​ and divorce tends to rise dramatically,​ while their endorsement of marriage and childbearing falls.((William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33(1996): 66-81.  
-\\ William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35 (2001): 125.)) They are also more likely to believe that marriage is not important prior to having children and to have a [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|child out of wedlock]]. This holds true even after controlling for socioeconomic status.((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35 (2001): 125.))+\\ William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35(2001): 125.)) They are also more likely to believe that marriage is not important prior to having children and to have a [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|child out of wedlock]]. This holds true even after controlling for socioeconomic status.((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35(2001): 125.))
  
 =====4. Crime===== =====4. Crime=====
 //(See [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|Effects of Family Structure on Crime]])// //(See [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|Effects of Family Structure on Crime]])//
  
-Children in intact families have lower rates of delinquency than children in non-intact families.((Schroeder, ​Ryan D., Aurea K. Osgood, and Michael J. Oghia, "​Family Transitions and Juvenile Delinquency,"​ //​Sociological Inquiry// 80, no. 4 (November 2010): 579, 596.)) Robert Sampson (then professor of sociology at the University of Chicago) reported, after studying 171 cities in the United States with populations over 100,000, that the divorce rate predicted the robbery rate of any given area, regardless of its economic and racial composition. In these [[effects_of_community_environment_on_juvenile_crime_rates|communities]],​ he found that lower divorce rates indicated higher formal and informal social controls (such as the supervision of children) and lower crime rates.((Robert J. Sampson, “Crime in Cities: The Effects of Formal and Informal Social Control,​” ​in //​Communities and Crime//, vol. 8, //Crime and Justice//, ed. Albert J. Reiss and Michael Tonry (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 271-311. \\ Forrest, ​W., Cohabitation, ​Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime,” //Journal of Marriage and Family//76 (2014): 547-549, 551.))  ​+Children in intact families have lower rates of delinquency than children in non-intact families.((Ryan D. Schroeder, Aurea K. Osgood, and Michael J. Oghia, "​Family Transitions and Juvenile Delinquency,"​ //​Sociological Inquiry// 80, no. 4 (November 2010): 579, 596.)) Robert Sampson (then professor of sociology at the University of Chicago) reported, after studying 171 cities in the United States with populations over 100,000, that the divorce rate predicted the robbery rate of any given area, regardless of its economic and racial composition. In these [[effects_of_community_environment_on_juvenile_crime_rates|communities]],​ he found that lower divorce rates indicated higher formal and informal social controls (such as the supervision of children) and lower crime rates.((Robert J. Sampson, “Crime in Cities: The Effects of Formal and Informal Social Control,” //​Communities and Crime// 8, //Crime and Justice//, ed. Albert J. Reiss and Michael Tonry (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 271-311. \\ Walter ​Forrest, ​"Cohabitation,​ Relationship Quality, and Desistance From Crime,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 76(2014): 547-549, 551.))  ​
  
-In 1994, it was reported in Wisconsin that the incarceration rate of juvenile delinquents was 12 times higher among children of divorced parents than among children of [[effects_of_parents_on_crime_rates|married parents]].((Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Youth Services, “Family Status of Delinquents in Juvenile Correctional Facilities in Wisconsin” (1994). The data from the report were merged with Current Population Survey data on family structure in Wisconsin for that year to derive rates of incarceration by family structure.)) A 2004 study showed that children from stepparent and single mother families also have significantly higher incarceration rates than children in intact families.((Harper, ​Cynthia C., and Sara S. McLanahan, "​Father ​absence ​and youth incarceration," //Journal of Research on Adolescence//​ 14, no. 3 (2004): 384-386.)) In a British longitudinal study of males aged eight to 32, David P. Farrington, professor of criminology at Cambridge University, found experiencing parental divorce before age 10 to be a major predictor of adolescent delinquency and adult criminality.((David P. Farrington, “Implications of Criminal Career Research for the Prevention of Offending,​” //Journal of Adolescence//​ 13 (1990): 93-113)) Another study found that boys who go through family transitions at the age of 14 or 15 are more likely to be delinquent when they are 16 or 17.((Krohn, ​Marvin D., Gina Penly Hall, and Alan J. Lizotte, "​Family ​transitions ​and later delinquency ​and drug use," //Journal Of Youth And Adolescence//​ 38, no. 3 (March 2009): 473.)) Adolescents from divorced families (particularly those in divorced single-father families) display more antisocial and violent behavior than adolescents in biologically intact families.((Kyrre Breivik and Dan Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Struc-tures:​ Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 114.)) An Australian parliamentary review of the literature found that divorce increases the likelihood that children will [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills|feel hostility and rejection]].((Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives,​ Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, //To Have and To Hold: Strategies to Strengthen Marriage and Relationships//​ (Canberra, Australia, Parliament of Australia: 1998), 36.))+In 1994, it was reported in Wisconsin that the incarceration rate of juvenile delinquents was 12 times higher among children of divorced parents than among children of [[effects_of_parents_on_crime_rates|married parents]].((Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Youth Services, “Family Status of Delinquents in Juvenile Correctional Facilities in Wisconsin” (1994). The data from the report were merged with Current Population Survey data on family structure in Wisconsin for that year to derive rates of incarceration by family structure.)) A 2004 study showed that children from stepparent and single mother families also have significantly higher incarceration rates than children in intact families.((Cynthia C. Harper, and Sara S. McLanahan, "​Father ​Absence ​and Youth Incarceration," //Journal of Research on Adolescence//​ 14, no. 3 (2004): 384-386.)) In a British longitudinal study of males aged eight to 32, David P. Farrington, professor of criminology at Cambridge University, found experiencing parental divorce before age 10 to be a major predictor of adolescent delinquency and adult criminality.((David P. Farrington, “Implications of Criminal Career Research for the Prevention of Offending,​” //Journal of Adolescence//​ 13(1990): 93-113)) Another study found that boys who go through family transitions at the age of 14 or 15 are more likely to be delinquent when they are 16 or 17.((Marvin D. Krohn Gina Penly Hall, and Alan J. Lizotte, "​Family ​Transitions ​and Later Delinquency ​and Drug Use," //Journal Of Youth And Adolescence//​ 38, no. 3 (2009): 473.)) Adolescents from divorced families (particularly those in divorced single-father families) display more antisocial and violent behavior than adolescents in biologically intact families.((Kyrre Breivik and Dan Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Struc-tures:​ Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 114.)) An Australian parliamentary review of the literature found that divorce increases the likelihood that children will [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills|feel hostility and rejection]].((Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives,​ Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, //To Have and To Hold: Strategies to Strengthen Marriage and Relationships//​ (Canberra, Australia, Parliament of Australia: 1998), 36.))
  
-Children of divorced parents are significantly more likely than children of intact married families to be delinquent by age 15, regardless of when the divorce took place.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60 (1990): 544-555.  +Children of divorced parents are significantly more likely than children of intact married families to be delinquent by age 15, regardless of when the divorce took place.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60(1990): 544-555.  
-\\ Others have found that children of divorced parents are up to six times as likely to be delinquent as children from intact families. See David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 123.)) A 1985 study that tracked one thousand families with children ages six to 18 for six years found that children living in intact married families exhibited the least delinquency,​ while children with stepfathers were more likely to exhibit the most disruptive behavior. In this study, the behavior of single-parent children fell between that of children of intact and stepfather families.((Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-term and Long-term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13 (1985): 599-661.))+\\ Others have found that children of divorced parents are up to six times as likely to be delinquent as children from intact families. See David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 123.)) A 1985 study that tracked one thousand families with children ages six to 18 for six years found that children living in intact married families exhibited the least delinquency,​ while children with stepfathers were more likely to exhibit the most disruptive behavior. In this study, the behavior of single-parent children fell between that of children of intact and stepfather families.((Annette U. Rickel and Thomas S. Langer, “Short-term and Long-term Effects of Marital Disruption on Children,​” //American Journal of Community Psychology//​ 13(1985): 599-661.))
  
-Parental divorce contributes to what some studies term “externalizing behaviors,​” which include weapon carrying, fighting, substance abuse, and binge drinking.((Kathleen ​Boyce Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors ​among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64 (2002): 1028-1029.)) Another study found that the sons of divorced parents are at no greater risk of involvement in delinquent behavior than boys living in intact families if the mother and father “engage in competent parenting.”((Ronald L. Simons, Kuei-Hsiu Lin, Leslie C. Gordon, Rand D. Conger, and Frederick O. Lorenz, “Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems Among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61 (1999): 1030.)) Good parenting on the part of divorced fathers achieved no such effects for the daughters of divorce, according to this same study. Among adolescent girls, there is a strong correlation between family structure and delinquency,​((Karen Heimer, “Gender, Interaction,​ and Delinquency:​ Testing a Theory of Differential Social Control,” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 59 (1996): 39-61 \\ Vanassche, ​SofieSodermansAnMatthijs, KoenSwicegood, Gray, "The Effects of Family Type, Family Relationships and Parental Role Models on Delinquency and Alcohol Use Among Flemish Adolescents,"​ //Journal Of Child & Family Studies// 23, no. 1 (2014): 135.)) hostile behavior,​((Bilge Pakiz, Helen Z. Reinherz, and Rose M. Giaconia, “Early Risk Factors for Serious Antisocial Behavior at Age 21: A Longitudinal Community Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 67 (1997): 92-100.)) drug use, larceny, skipping school,​((Neil Kalter, Barbara Riemer, Arthur Brickman, and Jade Woo Chen, “Implications of Parental Divorce for Female Development,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, no. 5 (1985): 538-544.)) and alcohol abuse.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60 (1990): 544-555. \\ Thompson, ​Ronald G., Dana Alonzo, Bridget F. Grant, and Deborah S. Hasin, "​Parental Divorce, Maternal–Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence,"​ //Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions//​ 13, no. 3 (2013): 295, 302.))+Parental divorce contributes to what some studies term “externalizing behaviors,​” which include weapon carrying, fighting, substance abuse, and binge drinking.((Kathleen ​B. Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors ​Among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64(2002): 1028-1029.)) Another study found that the sons of divorced parents are at no greater risk of involvement in delinquent behavior than boys living in intact families if the mother and father “engage in competent parenting.”((Ronald L. Simons, Kuei-Hsiu Lin, Leslie C. Gordon, Rand D. Conger, and Frederick O. Lorenz, “Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems Among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61(1999): 1030.)) Good parenting on the part of divorced fathers achieved no such effects for the daughters of divorce, according to this same study. Among adolescent girls, there is a strong correlation between family structure and delinquency,​((Karen Heimer, “Gender, Interaction,​ and Delinquency:​ Testing a Theory of Differential Social Control,” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 59(1996): 39-61 \\ Sofie Vanassche, ​An K. SodermansKoen Matthijsand Gray Swicegood, "The Effects of Family Type, Family Relationships and Parental Role Models on Delinquency and Alcohol Use Among Flemish Adolescents,"​ //Journal Of Child & Family Studies// 23, no. 1 (2014): 135.)) hostile behavior,​((Bilge Pakiz, Helen Z. Reinherz, and Rose M. Giaconia, “Early Risk Factors for Serious Antisocial Behavior at Age 21: A Longitudinal Community Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 67(1997): 92-100.)) drug use, larceny, skipping school,​((Neil Kalter, Barbara Riemer, Arthur Brickman, and Jade Woo Chen, “Implications of Parental Divorce for Female Development,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, no. 5 (1985): 538-544.)) and alcohol abuse.((Abbie K. Frost and Bilge Pakiz, “The Effects of Marital Disruption on Adolescents:​ Time as a Dynamic,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 60(1990): 544-555. \\ Ronald G. Thompson Dana Alonzo, Bridget F. Grant, and Deborah S. Hasin, "​Parental Divorce, Maternal–Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence,"​ //Journal Of Social Work Practice In The Addictions//​ 13, no. 3 (2013): 295, 302.))
  
 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 13 percent of children who live in an intact married family admit to having stolen at least $50 worth of goods. By comparison, 19 percent of children whose parents never married or are divorced, 20 percent of children living with a stepparent, 15 percent of those living with cohabiting biological parents, and 23 percent of those living with one cohabiting biological parent have stolen at least $50 worth of goods.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf00]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 13 percent of children who live in an intact married family admit to having stolen at least $50 worth of goods. By comparison, 19 percent of children whose parents never married or are divorced, 20 percent of children living with a stepparent, 15 percent of those living with cohabiting biological parents, and 23 percent of those living with one cohabiting biological parent have stolen at least $50 worth of goods.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-22-24-156.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_theft.png?400 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|{{ :theft_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====5. Drugs and Alcohol===== =====5. Drugs and Alcohol=====
  
-Parental divorce (as previously stated) predicts externalizing behavior, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption and binge drinking,​((Kathleen ​Boyce Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64 (2002): 1028-1029.)) and marijuana use.((John P. Hoffmann, “Exploring the Direct and Indirect Family Effects on Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Drug Issues// 23 (1993): 535-557. \\ Arkes, ​Jeremy, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296.)) Parental divorce or separation also predicts increased adolescent use of other illegal drugs.((Richard ​H. Needle, ​Susan S. Su, and William ​J. Doherty, “Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 52 (1990): 162 \\ Kyrre Breivik and Dan Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Structures: Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 115.)) The negative effects of divorce on adolescent substance use are not temporary, and tend to persist over time.((Arkes, Jeremy, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296))+Parental divorce (as previously stated) predicts externalizing behavior, such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption and binge drinking,​((Kathleen ​B. Rodgers and Hilary A. Rose, “Risk and Resiliency Factors among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64(2002): 1028-1029.)) and marijuana use.((John P. Hoffmann, “Exploring the Direct and Indirect Family Effects on Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Drug Issues// 23(1993): 535-557. \\ Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296.)) Parental divorce or separation also predicts increased adolescent use of other illegal drugs.((R.H. Needle, ​S.S. Su, and W.J. Doherty, “Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 52(1990): 162 \\ Kyrre Breivik and Dan Olweus, “Adolescent'​s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Structures: Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 3 (2006): 115.)) The negative effects of divorce on adolescent substance use are not temporary, and tend to persist over time.((Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 294, 296))
  
-Men who experienced their parents’ divorce as children (between ages seven and 16) are more likely to smoke as adults.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63 (2001): 453.)) Males who have experienced parental divorce are also more likely to use alcohol and drugs.((William J. Doherty and Richard H. Needle, “Psychological Adjustment and Substance Use among Adolescents Before and After a Parental Divorce,” //Child Development//​ 62 (1991): 332. \\ Arkes, Jeremy, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 293, 296.)) Women who experienced parental divorce between ages seven and 16 (but not those whose parents divorced later) are more likely to smoke and to drink heavily as adults than women whose parents remained married.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63 (2001): 452.)) One study found that, in families where the mother-daughter relationship was satisfying, parental divorce and maternal nonresidence led to delinquent behavior in girls. ((Tami M. Videon, “The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parental Separation on Adolescent Well-being,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64 (2002): 498))+Men who experienced their parents’ divorce as children (between ages seven and 16) are more likely to smoke as adults.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63(2001): 453.)) Males who have experienced parental divorce are also more likely to use alcohol and drugs.((William J. Doherty and Richard H. Needle, “Psychological Adjustment and Substance Use among Adolescents Before and After a Parental Divorce,” //Child Development//​ 62(1991): 332. \\ Jeremy ​Arkes, "The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use," //Substance Use & Misuse// 48, no. 3 (2013): 293, 296.)) Women who experienced parental divorce between ages seven and 16 (but not those whose parents divorced later) are more likely to smoke and to drink heavily as adults than women whose parents remained married.((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63(2001): 452.)) One study found that, in families where the mother-daughter relationship was satisfying, parental divorce and maternal nonresidence led to delinquent behavior in girls. ((Tami M. Videon, “The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Parental Separation on Adolescent Well-being,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64(2002): 498))
  
 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), children who live with both biological parents are less likely to get drunk than adolescents with stepparents,​ one biological cohabiting parent, or divorced parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Drinking,"​ Mapping America Projects ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), children who live with both biological parents are less likely to get drunk than adolescents with stepparents,​ one biological cohabiting parent, or divorced parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Drinking,"​ Mapping America Projects. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-16-18-154.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-16-18-154.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08H82.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_drinking.png?500 |Getting Drunk by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-16-18-154.pdf|{{ :adolescents_who_got_drunk_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Getting Drunk by Family Structure}}]]
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, more than 15 percent of adolescents whose parents are divorced have used hard drugs; this figure rises to roughly 18 percent for children living with a stepparent or one biological cohabiting parent.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Adolescent Use of Hard Drugs,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf]])) (See [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf| Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, more than 15 percent of adolescents whose parents are divorced have used hard drugs; this figure rises to roughly 18 percent for children living with a stepparent or one biological cohabiting parent.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Adolescent Use of Hard Drugs,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf]])) (See [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf| Chart]])
  
-[[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf|{{ :​family_structure_and_adolescent_use_of_hard_drugs.png?​500 |Hard Drug Use by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08F26.pdf|{{ :​family_structure_and_adolescent_use_of_hard_drugs.png?​400 |Hard Drug Use by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====6. Suicide===== =====6. Suicide=====
  
-Child suicide is often triggered by thoughts that his divorced parents reject him((David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 126. \\ Fotti, Sarah A., et al., "The Associations Between Peer and Parental Relationships and Suicidal Behaviours in Early Adolescents,"​ //Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry//​ 51, no. 11 (October 2006): 698, 700.)) or have lost interest in him.((John S. Wodarski and Pamela Harris, “Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Influences and the Means for Prevention,​” //Social Work// 32 (1987): 479.)) The fact that the suicide rate has risen along with the divorce rate is no coincidence.((Richard J. Cebula and Tatyana V. Zelenskaya, “Determinants of Youth Suicide: A Friendly Comment with Suggestions,​” //American Journal of Economics and Sociology// 65, no. 4 (2006): 996.)) One study reported that risk of a suicide attempt was higher in divorced families, though the association was eliminated after controlling for adverse experiences.((J. Hardt, A. Sidor, R. Nickel, B. Kappis, P. Petrak, and U.T. Egle, “Childhood Adversities and Suicide Attempts: A Retrospective Study,” //Journal of Family Violence// 23 (2008): 716.)) As the work of Patricia McCall, a sociology professor at North Carolina State University, shows, the strongest demographic indicator of suicide is the family structure within which a person resides: the divorced family structure has the highest suicide rate.((Patricia L. McCall and Kenneth C. Land, “Trends in White Male Adolescent, Young-Adult,​ and Elderly Suicide: Are There Common Underlying Structural Factors?” //Social Science Research// 23 (1994): 57-81. \\ Alonzo, ​Dana, Ronald ​G. Thompson, ​Mahlki ​Stohl, and Deborah ​Hasin, "The Influence of Parental Divorce and Alcohol Abuse on Adult Offspring Risk of Lifetime Suicide Attempt in the United States,"​ //American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry//​ 84, no. 3 (2014): 316, 318.)) For adults, having children decreases the parents’ risk of suicide.((Denney, J. T., “Family and Household Formations and Suicide in the United States,” //Journal of Marriage and Family//72 (2010): 202, 208-209.))+Child suicide is often triggered by thoughts that his divorced parents reject him((David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 126. \\ S.A Fotti, et al., "The Associations Between Peer and Parental Relationships and Suicidal Behaviours in Early Adolescents,"​ //Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry//​ 51, no. 11 (October 2006): 698, 700.)) or have lost interest in him.((John S. Wodarski and Pamela Harris, “Adolescent Suicide: A Review of Influences and the Means for Prevention,​” //Social Work// 32(1987): 479.)) The fact that the suicide rate has risen along with the divorce rate is no coincidence.((Richard J. Cebula and Tatyana V. Zelenskaya, “Determinants of Youth Suicide: A Friendly Comment with Suggestions,​” //American Journal of Economics and Sociology// 65, no. 4 (2006): 996.)) One study reported that risk of a suicide attempt was higher in divorced families, though the association was eliminated after controlling for adverse experiences.((J. Hardt, A. Sidor, R. Nickel, B. Kappis, P. Petrak, and U.T. Egle, “Childhood Adversities and Suicide Attempts: A Retrospective Study,” //Journal of Family Violence// 23(2008): 716.)) As the work of Patricia McCall, a sociology professor at North Carolina State University, shows, the strongest demographic indicator of suicide is the family structure within which a person resides: the divorced family structure has the highest suicide rate.((Patricia L. McCall and Kenneth C. Land, “Trends in White Male Adolescent, Young-Adult,​ and Elderly Suicide: Are There Common Underlying Structural Factors?” //Social Science Research// 23(1994): 57-81. \\ D. Alonzo, ​R.G. Thompson, ​M. Stohl, and D. Hasin, "The Influence of Parental Divorce and Alcohol Abuse on Adult Offspring Risk of Lifetime Suicide Attempt in the United States,"​ //American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry//​ 84, no. 3 (2014): 316, 318.)) For adults, having children decreases the parents’ risk of suicide.((Justin ​T. Denney, “Family and Household Formations and Suicide in the United States,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 72(2010): 202, 208-209.))
  
-Women from divorced families are 1.46 times as likely to attempt suicide as women from intact families.((Dana Lizardi, ​Ronald ​G. Thompson, ​Katherine ​Keyes, and Deborah ​Hasin, “The Role of Depression in the Differential Effect of Childhood Parental Divorce on Male and Female Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt Risk,” //The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 198, no. 9 (2010): 689.)) An earlier study by the same author found that women raised in divorced families are 1.33 times as likely to attempt suicide; this finding holds true even after adjusting for various confounding factors, such as age, race, and income.((Dana Lizardi, ​Ronald ​G. Thompson, ​Katherine ​Keyes, and Deborah ​Hasin, “Parental Divorce, Parental Depression, and Gender Differences in Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt,” //Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 197 (2009): 901.)) This link between parental divorce and the rise in adolescent suicide has been found again and again in the literature.((David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, The Costly Consequences of Divorce, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 124.  +Women from divorced families are 1.46 times as likely to attempt suicide as women from intact families.((D. Lizardi, ​R.G. Thompson, ​K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “The Role of Depression in the Differential Effect of Childhood Parental Divorce on Male and Female Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt Risk,” //The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 198, no. 9 (2010): 689.)) An earlier study by the same author found that women raised in divorced families are 1.33 times as likely to attempt suicide; this finding holds true even after adjusting for various confounding factors, such as age, race, and income.((D. Lizardi, ​R.G. Thompson, ​K. Keyes, and D. Hasin, “Parental Divorce, Parental Depression, and Gender Differences in Adult Offspring Suicide Attempt,” //Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease// 197(2009): 901.)) This link between parental divorce and the rise in adolescent suicide has been found again and again in the literature.((David B. Larson, James P. Swyers, and Susan S. Larson, ​//The Costly Consequences of Divorce//, (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 124.  
-Carmen Noevi Velez and Patricia ​Cohen, “Suicidal Behavior and Ideation in a Community Sample of Children: Maternal and Youth Reports,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry//​ 27 (1988): 349-356.  +C.N. Velez and P. Cohen, “Suicidal Behavior and Ideation in a Community Sample of Children: Maternal and Youth Reports,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry//​ 27(1988): 349-356.  
-\\ Franklyn L. Nelson, Norman L. Farberow, and Robert E. Litman, “Youth Suicide in California: A Comparative Study of Perceived Causes and Interventions,​” //Community Mental Health Journal// 24 (1988): 31-42.)) Cross-cultural studies of Japan and the United States have clearly demonstrated the link between divorce and suicidal thought.((David Lester and Kazuhiko Abe, “The Regional Variation of Divorce Rates in Japan and the United States,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 18 (1993): 227-230.+\\ Franklyn L. Nelson, Norman L. Farberow, and Robert E. Litman, “Youth Suicide in California: A Comparative Study of Perceived Causes and Interventions,​” //Community Mental Health Journal// 24(1988): 31-42.)) Cross-cultural studies of Japan and the United States have clearly demonstrated the link between divorce and suicidal thought.((David Lester and Kazuhiko Abe, “The Regional Variation of Divorce Rates in Japan and the United States,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 18(1993): 227-230.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].))