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effects_of_welfare_on_families [2016/07/29 09:32]
marri [1.1 Related American Demographics]
effects_of_welfare_on_families [2017/06/06 11:09] (current)
marri
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 =====1. Recipients of Welfare===== =====1. Recipients of Welfare=====
  
-[[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|Married couples]] are less likely to receive welfare.((Daphne Hernandez and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, “Income Volatility and Family Structure Patterns: Association with Stability and Change in Food Stamp Program Participation,​” //Journal of Family and Economic Issues// 30, no. 4 (2009): 366. As cited in Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew J. Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage,​” (May 2011). Available at [[http://​marri.frc.org/get.cfm?​i=RS11E03]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) [[effects_of_family_structure_on_government_dependency|Family intactness]] has a negative influence on what fraction of an area’s households receives food stamps((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) as well as on an area’s average TANF and state welfare transfers per 25- to 54-year-old female.((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on what fraction of an area’s households receives food stamps as well as on an area’s average TANF and state welfare transfers per 25- to 54-year-old female. \\ Precision has no formal meaning. It indicates how clearly determinable (distinguishable from zero) an influence on an outcome is. Precision is comparable to standard deviation. Low/ no precision indicates a high standard of deviation in which data points spread over a large range of value, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively uncertain. High precision indicates a low standard of deviation in which data points hover around the mean, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively certain. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.frc.org/get.cfm?​i=RS11E03|“Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) Children from [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|single-mother families]], intact cohabiting families, and (biological father or mother) cohabiting stepfamilies are significantly more likely than children from [[effects_of_marriage_on_child_poverty|married families]] to receive most forms of welfare, including AFDC (Aid for Families with Dependent Children, now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), food stamps, and Medicaid.((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) Intact married families are less likely to have participated in the Food Stamp Program (now SNAP, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) than cohabiting couples.((Daphne Hernandez and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, “Income Volatility and Family Structure Patterns: Association with Stability and Change in Food Stamp Program Participation,​” //Journal of Family and Economic Issues// 30, no. 4 (2009): 366.)) Also, family intactness has a negative influence on an area’s average Social Security Disability Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old individual.((Specifically,​ Family intactness has a //precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on an area’s average Social Security Disability Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old individual. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013|“U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].)) Family intactness also has a negative influence on an area’s average Supplemental Security Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old male or female.((Specifically,​ Family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on an area’s average Supplemental Security Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old male or female. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013|“U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​policy-2013]].))+[[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|Married couples]] are less likely to receive welfare.((Daphne Hernandez and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, “Income Volatility and Family Structure Patterns: Association with Stability and Change in Food Stamp Program Participation,​” //Journal of Family and Economic Issues// 30, no. 4 (2009): 366. As cited in Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew J. Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage,​” (May 2011). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) [[effects_of_family_structure_on_government_dependency|Family intactness]] has a negative influence on what fraction of an area’s households receives food stamps((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​]].)) as well as on an area’s average TANF and state welfare transfers per 25- to 54-year-old female.((Specifically,​ family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on what fraction of an area’s households receives food stamps as well as on an area’s average TANF and state welfare transfers per 25- to 54-year-old female. \\ Precision has no formal meaning. It indicates how clearly determinable (distinguishable from zero) an influence on an outcome is. Precision is comparable to standard deviation. Low/ no precision indicates a high standard of deviation in which data points spread over a large range of value, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively uncertain. High precision indicates a low standard of deviation in which data points hover around the mean, signifying that the influence of one variable over another is relatively certain. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/​|“Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​]].)) Children from [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|single-mother families]], intact cohabiting families, and (biological father or mother) cohabiting stepfamilies are significantly more likely than children from [[effects_of_marriage_on_child_poverty|married families]] to receive most forms of welfare, including AFDC (Aid for Families with Dependent Children, now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), food stamps, and Medicaid.((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​]].)) Intact married families are less likely to have participated in the Food Stamp Program (now SNAP, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) than cohabiting couples.((Daphne Hernandez and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest, “Income Volatility and Family Structure Patterns: Association with Stability and Change in Food Stamp Program Participation,​” //Journal of Family and Economic Issues// 30, no. 4 (2009): 366.)) Also, family intactness has a negative influence on an area’s average Social Security Disability Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old individual.((Specifically,​ Family intactness has a //precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on an area’s average Social Security Disability Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old individual. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​|“U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​]].)) Family intactness also has a negative influence on an area’s average Supplemental Security Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old male or female.((Specifically,​ Family intactness has a //very precisely determinable,​ negative influence// on an area’s average Supplemental Security Income transfer per 25- to 54-year-old male or female. For further elaboration see [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​|“U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging”]]))((Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family, Derived from the Index of Belonging,​” (2013). Available at [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/​]].))
  
 Three-fourths of all women applying for welfare benefits do so because of a disruption of marriage.((OECD,​ //Factors Affecting the Labor Force Participation of Lone Mothers in the United States//.)) Understandably,​ mothers who are employed at the time of divorce are much less likely to become welfare recipients than are mothers who do not work. And mothers who are not employed in the workforce at the time of divorce are as close to going on welfare as are single mothers who lose their jobs.((Philip K. Robins, “Child Support, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty,” //American Economic Review// 76, no. 4 (September 1986): 768-786.)) ​ Three-fourths of all women applying for welfare benefits do so because of a disruption of marriage.((OECD,​ //Factors Affecting the Labor Force Participation of Lone Mothers in the United States//.)) Understandably,​ mothers who are employed at the time of divorce are much less likely to become welfare recipients than are mothers who do not work. And mothers who are not employed in the workforce at the time of divorce are as close to going on welfare as are single mothers who lose their jobs.((Philip K. Robins, “Child Support, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty,” //American Economic Review// 76, no. 4 (September 1986): 768-786.)) ​
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 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Family Growth showed that women who had been sexually active as younger teens were more likely to be on public assistance decades later. Roughly 12 percent of those aged 38 to 44 who had their first intercourse at age 18 or older received public assistance in the year 2001. By contrast, 18.5 percent of those who had their first intercourse between ages 15 and 17 received aid, and 30.1 percent of those who had their first intercourse before age 15 received aid.((NSFG only surveys women up to age 44. The oldest group of women was selected in order to capture the most complete range of outcomes for sexual experience. Cycle 6. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Rev. Paul Sullins, "'​Public Assistance in Previous Year' by Age at First Intercourse,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15B72.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15B72.pdf|Chart]]) ​+The National Survey of Family Growth showed that women who had been sexually active as younger teens were more likely to be on public assistance decades later. Roughly 12 percent of those aged 38 to 44 who had their first intercourse at age 18 or older received public assistance in the year 2001. By contrast, 18.5 percent of those who had their first intercourse between ages 15 and 17 received aid, and 30.1 percent of those who had their first intercourse before age 15 received aid.((NSFG only surveys women up to age 44. The oldest group of women was selected in order to capture the most complete range of outcomes for sexual experience. Cycle 6. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Rev. Paul Sullins, "'​Public Assistance in Previous Year' by Age at First Intercourse,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-139-1.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-139-1.pdf|Chart]]) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15B72.pdf|{{ :​public_assistance_in_previous_year_by_age_at_first_intercourse.png?500 |Public Assistance in Previous Year}}]] +[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-139-1.pdf|{{ :​public_assistance_in_previous_year_by_age_at_first_intercourse.jpg?500 |Public Assistance in Previous Year}}]]
- +
-{{ :​public_assistance_in_previous_year_by_age_at_first_intercourse.png?​direct&​500 |Public Assistance in Previous Year}}+
 ====1.2 Single Mothers==== ====1.2 Single Mothers====