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effects_of_parental_discipline_on_juvenile_crime_rates [2015/06/16 08:05]
marri [1. Importance on Proper Supervision and Discipline]
effects_of_parental_discipline_on_juvenile_crime_rates [2015/09/11 09:38]
marri [2. Excessively Harsh Punishment]
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 ==========Effects of Parental Discipline on Juvenile Crime Rates========== ==========Effects of Parental Discipline on Juvenile Crime Rates==========
  
-//Research Synthesis//:​ [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]]+//Research Synthesis ​Paper//: [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]]
  
 =====1. Importance on Proper Supervision and Discipline===== =====1. Importance on Proper Supervision and Discipline=====
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 ====1.1 Discipline by Single Teen Mothers==== ====1.1 Discipline by Single Teen Mothers====
  
-The children of single teenage mothers are more at risk for later criminal behavior. One reason is that teenage single mothers monitor their children less than older married mothers do.((Merry Morash and Lila Rucker, “An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother’s Age at Childbearing to Her Children’s Delinquency in Four Data Sets,” //Crime and Delinquency//,​ Vol. 35, No. 1 (1989), pp. 45-93.)) They are more inclined to have an inconsistent,​ explosively angry approach to disciplining their children. In such homes family members, including children, generally use aggressive, coercive methods to make sure their needs are met by others in the family. ​ The parent'​s inability to monitor a child'​s behavior compounds the hostility between parent and child and leads to the first of the two major stages in delinquency described by the Oregon Group:+The children of single teenage mothers are more at risk for later criminal behavior. One reason is that teenage single mothers monitor their children less than older married mothers do.((Merry Morash and Lila Rucker, “An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother’s Age at Childbearing to Her Children’s Delinquency in Four Data Sets,” //Crime and Delinquency//,​ Vol. 35, No. 1 (1989), pp. 45-93.)) They are more inclined to have an inconsistent,​ explosively angry approach to disciplining their children. In such homes family members, including children, generally use aggressive, coercive methods to make sure their needs are met by others in the family.((Patterson (1982, 1986), quoted in Rolf  Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review//, Vol. 10 (1990), pp. 1-41.)) ​The parent'​s inability to monitor a child'​s behavior compounds the hostility between parent and child and leads to the first of the two major stages in delinquency described by the Oregon Group:
  
-> [The first stage is a] breakdown in family management procedures, producing an increase in antisocial behavior and an impairment in social skills and application at school. [In] the second stage, during adolescence,​ these conditions continue and the disruptions in the parents'​ monitoring practices and the adolescent'​s own poor social skills place him further at risk for finding his community in a deviant peer group. ​+> [The first stage is a] breakdown in family management procedures, producing an increase in antisocial behavior and an impairment in social skills and application at school. [In] the second stage, during adolescence,​ these conditions continue and the disruptions in the parents'​ monitoring practices and the adolescent'​s own poor social skills place him further at risk for finding his community in a deviant peer group.((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//,​ Vol. 23, No. 1 (1985), pp. 63-79.))
  
 =====2. Excessively Harsh Punishment===== =====2. Excessively Harsh Punishment=====
  
-While parental monitoring and supervision obviously are good for children, harsh or excessive discipline has just the opposite effect. The parents of delinquents are harsher than ordinary parents in punishing their children; ​ and depressed, stressed, or hostile parents more likely will vent their anger on their more aggressive children. ​ In the case of the single teenage mother, the absence of the father increases the risk of harshness from the mother. ​ For these children, harsh punishment can mean parental rejection. "​Punishment that is too strict, frequent or severe can lead to a greater probability of delinquency regardless of parental attachments. That is, a strong parent-child bond will not lessen the adverse impact of punishment that is too harsh." ​+While parental monitoring and supervision obviously are good for children, harsh or excessive discipline has just the opposite effect. The parents of delinquents are harsher than ordinary parents in punishing their children;((Jeff M. Madoff, “The Attitudes of Mothers of Juvenile Delinquents Toward Child Rearing,” //Journal of Consulting Psychology//,​ Vol. 23, No. 6 (1959), pp. 518-521.)) ​and depressed, stressed, or hostile parents more likely will vent their anger on their more aggressive children.((Quoted in Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber,​ “Family Factors as Correlates and Predictors of Juvenile Conduct Problems and Delinquency,​” in //Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research//, ed. M. Tonry and N. Morris (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), Vol. 7, pp. 29-149.)) ​In the case of the single teenage mother, the absence of the father increases the risk of harshness from the mother.((Merry Morash and Lila Rucker, “An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother’s Age at Childbearing to Her Children’s Delinquency in Four Data Sets,” //Crime and Delinquency//,​ Vol. 35, No. 1 (1989), pp. 45-93.)) ​For these children, harsh punishment can mean parental rejection. "​Punishment that is too strict, frequent or severe can lead to a greater probability of delinquency regardless of parental attachments. That is, a strong parent-child bond will not lessen the adverse impact of punishment that is too harsh."​((Joseph H. Rankin and L. Edwards Wells, “The Effect of Parental Attachments and Direct Controls on Delinquency,​” //Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency//,​ Vol. 27, No. 2 (1990), pp. 140-165.)) Punishment administered in anger increases a child’s chances of becoming violent.((UNICEF Unite for Children, World Health Organization,​ United Nations Educational,​ Scientific, and Cultural Organization,​ UNFPA, UNDP, UNAIDS, World Food Programme, and The World Bank, “Child Development and Early Learning,​” United Nations Children’s Fund (2010). Available via //Facts for Life// at [[http://​www.factsforlifeglobal.org/​03/​1.html]]. ))