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effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates [2015/09/10 11:48]
marri [3. Abandoned Sons]
effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates [2015/09/10 11:50]
marri [4. Absence of a Father's Discipline]
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 A father'​s attention to his son has enormous positive effects on a boy's emotional and social development.((Robert Karen, Becoming Attached (New York: Time Warner Books, 1994), chapter 14, “The Mother, the Father and the Outside World.”)) But a boy abandoned by his father is deprived of a deep sense of personal security.((Boys whose fathers die, leaving their mothers widowed, typically do not have this emotional deficit. See Paul L. Adams, Judith R. Milner, and Nancy A. Schrepf, //​Fatherless Children// (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984). \\ There is a difference between death and abandonment. One condition is a fact of life to be accepted by everybody; the other is a grave moral condition to avoided if at all possible.)) According to Rolf Loeber, Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology and Epidemiology at the Western Psychiatric Institute in the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, "A close and intense relationship between a boy and his father prevents hostility and inappropriate aggressiveness."​ This inappropriate aggressiveness is an early indication of potential delinquency later on, particularly in boys.((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review//, Vol. 10 (1990), pp. 1-41.)) Furthermore,​ such bad behavior is a barrier to the child'​s finding a place among his more normal peers,​((Patricia Van Voorhis et al., “The Impact of Family Structure and Quality on Delinquency:​ A Comparative Assessment of Structural and Functional Factors,” Criminology,​ Vol. 26, No. 2 (1988), pp. 235-261.)) and aggressiveness usually is the precursor of a hostile and violent "​street"​ attitude.((Erin J. Lee, “The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory,” //​Personality Research// (December 2003). Available at [[http://​www.personalityresearch.org/​papers/​lee.html]]. Accessed July 7, 2015.)) Elijah Anderson, Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania,​ observes that these young men, very sensitive in their demands for "​respect,"​ display a demeanor which communicates "​deterrent aggression"​ not unlike the behavior that causes normal peers to reject and isolate aggressive boys in grade school.((Elijah Anderson, “The Code of the Street,” Atlantic Monthly, May 1994. See also “Stage Two: Juvenile Delinquency,​” infra.)) The message of this body language, of course, triggers rejection by the normal adult community. A father'​s attention to his son has enormous positive effects on a boy's emotional and social development.((Robert Karen, Becoming Attached (New York: Time Warner Books, 1994), chapter 14, “The Mother, the Father and the Outside World.”)) But a boy abandoned by his father is deprived of a deep sense of personal security.((Boys whose fathers die, leaving their mothers widowed, typically do not have this emotional deficit. See Paul L. Adams, Judith R. Milner, and Nancy A. Schrepf, //​Fatherless Children// (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984). \\ There is a difference between death and abandonment. One condition is a fact of life to be accepted by everybody; the other is a grave moral condition to avoided if at all possible.)) According to Rolf Loeber, Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology and Epidemiology at the Western Psychiatric Institute in the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, "A close and intense relationship between a boy and his father prevents hostility and inappropriate aggressiveness."​ This inappropriate aggressiveness is an early indication of potential delinquency later on, particularly in boys.((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review//, Vol. 10 (1990), pp. 1-41.)) Furthermore,​ such bad behavior is a barrier to the child'​s finding a place among his more normal peers,​((Patricia Van Voorhis et al., “The Impact of Family Structure and Quality on Delinquency:​ A Comparative Assessment of Structural and Functional Factors,” Criminology,​ Vol. 26, No. 2 (1988), pp. 235-261.)) and aggressiveness usually is the precursor of a hostile and violent "​street"​ attitude.((Erin J. Lee, “The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory,” //​Personality Research// (December 2003). Available at [[http://​www.personalityresearch.org/​papers/​lee.html]]. Accessed July 7, 2015.)) Elijah Anderson, Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania,​ observes that these young men, very sensitive in their demands for "​respect,"​ display a demeanor which communicates "​deterrent aggression"​ not unlike the behavior that causes normal peers to reject and isolate aggressive boys in grade school.((Elijah Anderson, “The Code of the Street,” Atlantic Monthly, May 1994. See also “Stage Two: Juvenile Delinquency,​” infra.)) The message of this body language, of course, triggers rejection by the normal adult community.
  
-=====4. Absence of a Father'​s Discipline=====+=====4. Absence of a Father'​s ​Authority and Discipline=====
  
-The dominant role of fathers in preventing delinquency is well-established. Over forty years ago, this phenomenon was highlighted in the classic studies of the causes of delinquency by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck of Harvard University.((Sheldon and Eleanor T. Gluceck, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950).)) They described in academic terms what many children hear their mothers so often say: "Wait till your father gets home!" In a well-functioning family, the very presence of the father embodies authority, an authority conveyed through his daily involvement in family life.((Anne Campbell, “Self-Reported Delinquency and Home Life: Evidence from a Sample of British Girls,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//,​ Vol. 16. No. 2 (1987). This is not to diminish the importance of the father’s affiliation with his children in other areas—for example, sexual identity, to name but one.)) This paternal authority is critical to the prevention of psychopathology and delinquency.((Ellis Pitt-Atkins and Alice Thomas, //Loss of the Good Authority: The Cause of Delinquency//​ (London: Viking, 1989).)) ​+The dominant role of fathers in preventing delinquency is well-established. Over fifty years ago, this phenomenon was highlighted in the classic studies of the causes of delinquency by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck of Harvard University.((Sheldon and Eleanor T. Gluceck, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950).)) They described in academic terms what many children hear their mothers so often say: "Wait till your father gets home!" In a well-functioning family, the very presence of the father embodies authority, an authority conveyed through his daily involvement in family life.((Anne Campbell, “Self-Reported Delinquency and Home Life: Evidence from a Sample of British Girls,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//,​ Vol. 16. No. 2 (1987). This is not to diminish the importance of the father’s affiliation with his children in other areas—for example, sexual identity, to name but one.)) This paternal authority is critical to the prevention of psychopathology and delinquency.((Ellis Pitt-Atkins and Alice Thomas, //Loss of the Good Authority: The Cause of Delinquency//​ (London: Viking, 1989). \\ “Father Presence,​” National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse,​ Available at [[https://​www.fatherhood.gov/​for-programs/​for-your-fathers/​father-presence#​]] (accessed July 7, 2015).)) 
  
 The benefits a child receives from his relationship with his father are notably different from those derived from his relationship with his mother. The father contributes a sense of paternal authority and discipline which is conveyed through his involved presence.((“Involved presence” means active participation by the father in supervising the child’s progress: at a minimum, by monitoring and correcting the child.)) The additional benefits of his affection and attachment add to this primary benefit. Albert Bandura, professor of psychology at Stanford University, observed as early as 1959 that delinquents suffer from an absence of the father'​s affection.((Albert Bandura and R.H. Walters, //​Adolescent Aggression//​ (New York: Ronald Press, 1959).)) ​ The benefits a child receives from his relationship with his father are notably different from those derived from his relationship with his mother. The father contributes a sense of paternal authority and discipline which is conveyed through his involved presence.((“Involved presence” means active participation by the father in supervising the child’s progress: at a minimum, by monitoring and correcting the child.)) The additional benefits of his affection and attachment add to this primary benefit. Albert Bandura, professor of psychology at Stanford University, observed as early as 1959 that delinquents suffer from an absence of the father'​s affection.((Albert Bandura and R.H. Walters, //​Adolescent Aggression//​ (New York: Ronald Press, 1959).)) ​