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effects_of_family_structure_on_poverty [2016/11/03 13:45]
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effects_of_family_structure_on_poverty [2016/11/03 13:46]
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 {{ :​families_in_povert_2015.png?​direct&​500 |Families in Poverty}} {{ :​families_in_povert_2015.png?​direct&​500 |Families in Poverty}}
  
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 Economically,​ women suffer more from divorce than men.((Diana B. Elliott, and Tavia Simmons, "​Marital Events of Americans: 2009," Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration,​ US Census Bureau, 2011.Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​acs-13.pdf]]. )) Though child support helps a woman avoid poverty after divorce, it does not help as much as most think. Over 35 percent of custodial mothers receiving child support were impoverished 16-18 months following the divorce while only 10.5 percent of all non-custodial fathers (those paying child support and those not) were impoverished.((Judi Bartfeld, “Child Support and Postdivorce Economic Well-Being of Mothers, Fathers, and Children,​” //​Demography//​ 37, no. 2 (2000): 209.)) Economically,​ women suffer more from divorce than men.((Diana B. Elliott, and Tavia Simmons, "​Marital Events of Americans: 2009," Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration,​ US Census Bureau, 2011.Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​acs-13.pdf]]. )) Though child support helps a woman avoid poverty after divorce, it does not help as much as most think. Over 35 percent of custodial mothers receiving child support were impoverished 16-18 months following the divorce while only 10.5 percent of all non-custodial fathers (those paying child support and those not) were impoverished.((Judi Bartfeld, “Child Support and Postdivorce Economic Well-Being of Mothers, Fathers, and Children,​” //​Demography//​ 37, no. 2 (2000): 209.))
  
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 Divorce can also increase a household’s dependence on government benefits. Within 12 months of divorce, almost 30 percent of mothers with minor children receive public assistance in the form of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), cash public assistance income, or Food Stamp benefits.((Diana B. Elliott, and Tavia Simmons, "​Marital Events of Americans: 2009," Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration,​ US Census Bureau, 2011.Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​acs-13.pdf]].)) Divorced mothers who receive welfare do so for three to four years, on average, during which time they begin to work their way out of poverty.((Julia Heath, “Determinants of Spells of Poverty Following Divorce,” //Review of Social Economy// 49, (1992): 305-315.)) However, it seems that welfare benefits may decrease the incentives for remarriage,​((C. Dewilde and W. Uunk, “Remarriage as a Way to Overcome the Financial Consequences of Divorce– A Test of the Economic Need Hypothesis for European Women,” //European Sociological Review// 24, no. 3 (2008): 400.)) a path out of poverty for men and women alike.((Caroline Dewilde and Wilfred Uunk, “Remarriage as a Way to Overcome the Financial Consequences of Divorce– A Test of the Economic Need Hypothesis for European Women,” //European Sociological Review// 24, no. 3 (2008): 403.  Divorce can also increase a household’s dependence on government benefits. Within 12 months of divorce, almost 30 percent of mothers with minor children receive public assistance in the form of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), cash public assistance income, or Food Stamp benefits.((Diana B. Elliott, and Tavia Simmons, "​Marital Events of Americans: 2009," Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration,​ US Census Bureau, 2011.Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​acs-13.pdf]].)) Divorced mothers who receive welfare do so for three to four years, on average, during which time they begin to work their way out of poverty.((Julia Heath, “Determinants of Spells of Poverty Following Divorce,” //Review of Social Economy// 49, (1992): 305-315.)) However, it seems that welfare benefits may decrease the incentives for remarriage,​((C. Dewilde and W. Uunk, “Remarriage as a Way to Overcome the Financial Consequences of Divorce– A Test of the Economic Need Hypothesis for European Women,” //European Sociological Review// 24, no. 3 (2008): 400.)) a path out of poverty for men and women alike.((Caroline Dewilde and Wilfred Uunk, “Remarriage as a Way to Overcome the Financial Consequences of Divorce– A Test of the Economic Need Hypothesis for European Women,” //European Sociological Review// 24, no. 3 (2008): 403. 
 \\Suzanne M. Bianchi, Lekha Subaiya, and Joan R. Kahn, “The Gender Gap in the Economic Well-Being of Nonresident Fathers and Custodial Mothers,” //​Demography//​ 36, no. 2 (May 1999): 200.)) \\Suzanne M. Bianchi, Lekha Subaiya, and Joan R. Kahn, “The Gender Gap in the Economic Well-Being of Nonresident Fathers and Custodial Mothers,” //​Demography//​ 36, no. 2 (May 1999): 200.))
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 Single-parent families are vulnerable in a number of ways. In 2014 over three quarters of homeless families nationwide were headed by single mothers with children.((Ellen L. Bassuk, Carmela J. DeCandia, Corey Anne Beach, and Fred Berman, "​America'​s Youngest Outcasts: A Report Card on Child Homelessness,"​ American Institute for Research (2014). Available at [[http://​www.air.org/​resource/​americas-youngest-outcasts-report-card-child-homelessness]].)) Many single mothers receive government aid in the form of welfare. Fifty percent of female-headed families received major means-tested welfare in 2012.((Shelley K. Irving and Tracy A. Loveless, "​Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Participation in Government Programs, 2009-2012: Who Gets Assistance?"​ //Household Economic Studies// (2015): 9-10. Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​content/​dam/​Census/​library/​publications/​2015/​demo/​p70-141.pdf]].)) ​ Single-parent families are vulnerable in a number of ways. In 2014 over three quarters of homeless families nationwide were headed by single mothers with children.((Ellen L. Bassuk, Carmela J. DeCandia, Corey Anne Beach, and Fred Berman, "​America'​s Youngest Outcasts: A Report Card on Child Homelessness,"​ American Institute for Research (2014). Available at [[http://​www.air.org/​resource/​americas-youngest-outcasts-report-card-child-homelessness]].)) Many single mothers receive government aid in the form of welfare. Fifty percent of female-headed families received major means-tested welfare in 2012.((Shelley K. Irving and Tracy A. Loveless, "​Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Participation in Government Programs, 2009-2012: Who Gets Assistance?"​ //Household Economic Studies// (2015): 9-10. Available at [[http://​www.census.gov/​content/​dam/​Census/​library/​publications/​2015/​demo/​p70-141.pdf]].)) ​
  
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 Welfare benefits also correlate with a decrease in the marriage rate, thus narrowing another path out of poverty. A $100 increase in monthly welfare benefits for single mothers decreases a woman’s likelihood of marrying by 2.5- 5 percentage points.((Robert Moffitt and Anne Winkler, “Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation and Marriage in the AFDC Program,” //​Demography//​ 35, no. 3 (1998): 267.)) According to one study, 80 percent of single parents who entered into select welfare programs remained single two to four years after first receiving payments.((Lisa A. Gennetian and Virginia Knox, “Staying Single: The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Marriage and Cohabitation,​” //The Next Generation//,​ Working Paper no. 13 (2003): 20.)) In particular, receiving benefits from the AFDC welfare program corresponds with a 5 percent reduction in the marriage rate.((M.P. Bitler, J.B. Gelbach, H.W. Hoynes, and M. Zavodny, “The Impact of Welfare Reform on Marriage and Divorce,” //​Demography//​ 41, no. 2 (2004): 222.)) Welfare benefits also correlate with a decrease in the marriage rate, thus narrowing another path out of poverty. A $100 increase in monthly welfare benefits for single mothers decreases a woman’s likelihood of marrying by 2.5- 5 percentage points.((Robert Moffitt and Anne Winkler, “Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation and Marriage in the AFDC Program,” //​Demography//​ 35, no. 3 (1998): 267.)) According to one study, 80 percent of single parents who entered into select welfare programs remained single two to four years after first receiving payments.((Lisa A. Gennetian and Virginia Knox, “Staying Single: The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Marriage and Cohabitation,​” //The Next Generation//,​ Working Paper no. 13 (2003): 20.)) In particular, receiving benefits from the AFDC welfare program corresponds with a 5 percent reduction in the marriage rate.((M.P. Bitler, J.B. Gelbach, H.W. Hoynes, and M. Zavodny, “The Impact of Welfare Reform on Marriage and Divorce,” //​Demography//​ 41, no. 2 (2004): 222.))