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effects_of_family_structure_on_female_crime_rates [2015/10/21 07:25]
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effects_of_family_structure_on_female_crime_rates [2015/11/12 12:12] (current)
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 ==========Effects of Family Structure on Female Crime Rates========== ==========Effects of Family Structure on Female Crime Rates==========
  
-The discussion of delinquency generally focuses on boys because most violent crime is committed by males. However, the rate of female delinquency is growing much faster than is the rate of male delinquency.((Charles Puzzanchera and Sarah Hockenberry, ​Juvenile Court Statistics 2010,” Pittsburgh: National +The discussion of delinquency generally focuses on boys because most violent crime is committed by males. However, the rate of female delinquency is growing much faster than is the rate of male delinquency.((Charles Puzzanchera and Sarah Hockenberry, ​//Juvenile Court Statistics 2010//, Pittsburgh: National Center for Juvenile Justice (2013).)) While male and female delinquents have similar experiences,​ the quality of the intimate family relations of delinquent females often is much worse. Female delinquents are more likely to come from a [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|non-intact family]].((Leslie Acoca, “Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy,​” ​//Juvenile Justice// 6(1999): 3–13.)) They tend to be even [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|less attached to]], and to have more problems with, their mothers than do male delinquents. They are even more firmly rejected by their female school peers than are their male counterparts. And, in turn, they are even more firmly attached to their own "bad companions"​ -- the delinquent peer group -- than are males are to theirs.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society// 21, no. 3 (1990)306-354.)) Female delinquency can often be attributed to a breakdown of relationships at school and with parents.((U.S. Department of Justice//Juvenile Arrests 2011//Charles Puzzanchera,​ (Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 2013). \\ Carla P Davis, “At-Risk Girls and Delinquency:​ Career ​Pathways,” //Crime & Delinquency//​ 53(2007): 408–35.))
-Center for Juvenile Justice (2013).)) While male and female delinquents have similar experiences,​ the quality of the intimate family relations of delinquent females often is much worse. Female delinquents are more likely to come from a [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|non-intact family]].((Leslie Acoca, “Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy,​” Juvenile Justice 6 (1999): 3–13.)) They tend to be even [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|less attached to]], and to have more problems with, their mothers than do male delinquents. They are even more firmly rejected by their female school peers than are their male counterparts. And, in turn, they are even more firmly attached to their own "bad companions"​ -- the delinquent peer group -- than are males are to theirs.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society//, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1990), pp. 306-354.)) Female delinquency can often be attributed to a breakdown of relationships at school and with parents.((Charles PuzzancheraJuvenile Arrests 2011,” Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), U.S. Department of Justice, 2013. \\ Carla P Davis, “At-risk Girls and Delinquency:​ Career ​pathways,” //Crime & Delinquency//​ 53 (2007): 408–35.))+
  
 Professor Jill Rosenbaum of California State University paints a graphic picture of the early life of a female delinquent. The relationship between family breakdown or disintegration and later criminal status is dramatic: Professor Jill Rosenbaum of California State University paints a graphic picture of the early life of a female delinquent. The relationship between family breakdown or disintegration and later criminal status is dramatic:
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 **Generational Cycles**: The mothers of the CYA wards tend to marry young, with 44% having had the ward by the time she was 18. These daughters tended to follow in their mothers'​ footsteps and begin bearing children at an early age. Parents often encouraged this behavior. One mother explained to her daughter'​s parole officer that she was happy to hear that her 15-year-old daughter was pregnant --" That is what women are supposed to do.” The men in the wards' lives bore a striking resemblance to the men chosen by their mothers. Many were significantly older than the girls and had criminal records. **Generational Cycles**: The mothers of the CYA wards tend to marry young, with 44% having had the ward by the time she was 18. These daughters tended to follow in their mothers'​ footsteps and begin bearing children at an early age. Parents often encouraged this behavior. One mother explained to her daughter'​s parole officer that she was happy to hear that her 15-year-old daughter was pregnant --" That is what women are supposed to do.” The men in the wards' lives bore a striking resemblance to the men chosen by their mothers. Many were significantly older than the girls and had criminal records.
  
-**The Mothers**: The wards' mothers did not have the supports or resources needed to cope with their environments. They often were socially isolated and distrusted those attempting to help. They viewed welfare workers as those trying to take away funds and social workers as trying to take away their children. These attitudes and fears had occupied the families for generations. The mothers of the CYA girls did not know how to be mothers, for they were often children themselves when their children were born, and lacked the emotional resources to instill a sense of trust and security necessary for self-esteem and growth. Over time, just trying to survive depleted whatever emotional resources they might once have had.((Jill L. Rosenbaum, “Family Dysfunction and Female Delinquency,​” //Crime and Delinquency//​ 35 (1989): 31-44.+**The Mothers**: The wards' mothers did not have the supports or resources needed to cope with their environments. They often were socially isolated and distrusted those attempting to help. They viewed welfare workers as those trying to take away funds and social workers as trying to take away their children. These attitudes and fears had occupied the families for generations. The mothers of the CYA girls did not know how to be mothers, for they were often children themselves when their children were born, and lacked the emotional resources to instill a sense of trust and security necessary for self-esteem and growth. Over time, just trying to survive depleted whatever emotional resources they might once have had.((Jill L. Rosenbaum, “Family Dysfunction and Female Delinquency,​” //Crime and Delinquency//​ 35(1989): 31-44.
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