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effects_of_family_structure_on_crime [2015/10/20 14:44]
marri
effects_of_family_structure_on_crime [2017/05/23 10:08] (current)
marri [3.1 Related American Demographics]
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   * Criminals capable of [[effects_of_marriage_on_society|sustaining marriage]] gradually move away from a life of crime after they get married.   * Criminals capable of [[effects_of_marriage_on_society|sustaining marriage]] gradually move away from a life of crime after they get married.
   * The mother'​s strong [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|affectionate attachment]] to her child is the child'​s best buffer against a life of crime.   * The mother'​s strong [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|affectionate attachment]] to her child is the child'​s best buffer against a life of crime.
-  * Strong parental bonds will significantly decrease the chance that the child will commit an act of violence.((Chris Knoester and Dana L. Haynie, “Community Context, Social Integration Into Family, and Youth Violence,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, No. 3 (August ​2005): 767-780.))+  * Strong parental bonds will significantly decrease the chance that the child will commit an act of violence.((Chris Knoester and Dana L. Haynie, “Community Context, Social Integration Into Family, and Youth Violence,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, no. 3 (2005): 767-780.))
 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 12 percent of adults who attended religious services at least monthly and lived in an intact family through adolescence have ever been picked up or charged by police, compared to 21 percent of adults who attended religious services less than monthly and lived in a non-intact family as adolescents.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-1987. The sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979 or 1981. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "​Intergenerational Links to Being Picked Up or Charged by Police: +According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 12 percent of adults who attended religious services at least monthly and lived in an intact family through adolescence have ever been picked up or charged by police, compared to 21 percent of adults who attended religious services less than monthly and lived in a non-intact family as adolescents.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-1987. The sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979 or 1981. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "​Intergenerational Links to Being Picked Up or Charged by Police: Religious Attendance and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-55-57-167.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-55-57-167.pdf|Chart]] Below)
-Religious Attendance and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F72.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F72.pdf|Chart]] Below)+
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F72.pdf|{{ :picked_up_or_charged_by_police_religion_and_fs.png?500 |Percent Who Have Ever Been Picked Up or Charged by Police}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-55-57-167.pdf|{{ :picked_up_or_charged_by_police_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |Percent Who Have Ever Been Picked Up or Charged by Police}}]]
  
 =====2. Child Development===== =====2. Child Development=====
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 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 10 percent of adults who lived in an intact family as adolescents have ever been picked up or charged by police, compared to 17 percent of those who lived in a non-intact family.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-1987. The sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979 or 1981. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "​Intergenerational Links to Being Picked Up or Charged by Police:​Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F58.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F58.pdf|Chart]]).+According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 10 percent of adults who lived in an intact family as adolescents have ever been picked up or charged by police, compared to 17 percent of those who lived in a non-intact family.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-1987. The sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979 or 1981. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, "​Intergenerational Links to Being Picked Up or Charged by Police:​Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-55-57-167.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-55-57-167.pdf|Chart]]).
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F58.pdf|{{ :intergenerational_links_to_being_picked_up_or_charged_by_police_family_structure.png?400 |Percent Who Have Ever Been Picked Up or Charged by Police}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-55-57-167.pdf|{{ :picked_up_or_charged_by_police_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percent Who Have Ever Been Picked Up or Charged by Police}}]]
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth showed that 5 percent of youths who grew up in an intact married family had ever been arrested, followed by youths from married stepfamilies and families with intact cohabiting partners (8 percent), single divorced parent families (9 percent) and cohabiting stepfamilies and always single parent families (13 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Been Arrested'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11D19.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11D19.pdf|Chart]] Below) +The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth showed that 5 percent of youths who grew up in an intact married family had ever been arrested, followed by youths from married stepfamilies and families with intact cohabiting partners (8 percent), single divorced parent families (9 percent) and cohabiting stepfamilies and always single parent families (13 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Been Arrested'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-102.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-102.pdf|Chart]] Below)
- +
-[[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF11D19.pdf|{{ :​ever_been_arrested_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?​500 |"Ever Been Arrested"​}}]]+
  
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-102.pdf|{{ :​arrests_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 |"Ever Been Arrested"​}}]]
 =====3. Forming Attachments===== =====3. Forming Attachments=====
  
-The evidence of the professional literature is overwhelming:​ teenage criminal behavior has its roots in habitual [[state_of_the_family_in_america|deprivation of parental love and affection]] going back to early infancy. Future delinquents invariably have a chaotic, disintegrating [[effects_of_parents_on_crime_rates|family life]]. This frequently leads to aggression and hostility toward others outside the family. Most delinquents are not withdrawn or depressed. Quite the opposite: they are actively involved in their neighborhood,​ but often in a violent fashion. This hostility is established in the first few years of life. By age six, habits of aggression and free-floating anger typically are already formed.((Jennifer L. White et al., “How Nearly Can We Tell?: Predictors of Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adolescent Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//, ​Vol. 28. No. 4(1990), pp. 507-533.)) By way of contrast, normal children enjoy a sense of personal security derived from their natural [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|attachment to their mother]]. The future criminal is often denied that natural attachment.+The evidence of the professional literature is overwhelming:​ teenage criminal behavior has its roots in habitual [[state_of_the_family_in_america|deprivation of parental love and affection]] going back to early infancy. Future delinquents invariably have a chaotic, disintegrating [[effects_of_parents_on_crime_rates|family life]]. This frequently leads to aggression and hostility toward others outside the family. Most delinquents are not withdrawn or depressed. Quite the opposite: they are actively involved in their neighborhood,​ but often in a violent fashion. This hostility is established in the first few years of life. By age six, habits of aggression and free-floating anger typically are already formed.((Jennifer L. White et al., “How Nearly Can We Tell?: Predictors of Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adolescent Delinquency,​” //​Criminology// ​28no. 4 (1990)507-533.)) By way of contrast, normal children enjoy a sense of personal security derived from their natural [[effects_of_maternal_attachment_on_crime_rates|attachment to their mother]]. The future criminal is often denied that natural attachment.
  
-The relationship between parents, not just the relationship between mother and child, has a powerful effect on very young children. Children react to quarreling parents by disobeying, crying, hitting other children, and in general being much more antisocial than their peers.((E.M. Cummings, “Coping with background anger in early childhood,​” //Child Development//​, Vol. 58 (1987), pp. 976-984; \\ Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review//, ​Vol. 10 (1990), pp. 1-41.)) And, significantly,​ quarreling or [[demographics_of_child_abuse|abusive parents]] do not generally vent their anger equally on all their children. Such parents tend to vent their anger on their more difficult children. This [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|parental hostility]] and physical and emotional abuse of the child shapes the future delinquent. ​+The relationship between parents, not just the relationship between mother and child, has a powerful effect on very young children. Children react to quarreling parents by disobeying, crying, hitting other children, and in general being much more antisocial than their peers.((E.M. Cummings, “Coping with background anger in early childhood,​” //Child Development//​ 58(1987)976-984; \\ Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// ​10, (1990)1-41.)) And, significantly,​ quarreling or [[demographics_of_child_abuse|abusive parents]] do not generally vent their anger equally on all their children. Such parents tend to vent their anger on their more difficult children. This [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|parental hostility]] and physical and emotional abuse of the child shapes the future delinquent. ​
  
-Most delinquents are children who have been [[effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates|abandoned by their fathers]]. They are often deprived also of the love and affection they need from their mother. Inconsistent parenting,​((Ronald L. Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations//, ​Vol. 38 (1989), pp. 273-281, citing original work by Gerald R. Patterson (1982, 1986).)) family turmoil,​((Lisabeth DiLalla et al., “Aggression and Delinquency:​ Family and Environmental Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​, Vol. 17, No. 3 (1988), pp. 233-246. )) and multiple other stresses (such as economic hardship and psychiatric illnesses)((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.)) that flow from these disagreements compound the rejection of these children by these parents,​((Ronald L. Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations//, ​Vol. 38 (1989), pp. 273-281, citing original work by Gerald R. Patterson (1982, 1986).)) many of whom became criminals during childhood.((James D. Roff, “Identification of Boys at High Risk for Delinquency,​” //​Psychological Reports//, ​Vol. 58 (1986), pp. 615-618.)) With all these factors working against the child'​s normal development,​ by age five the future criminal already will tend to be aggressive, hostile, and hyperactive. Four-fifths of children destined to be criminals will be "​antisocial"​ by 11 years of age, and fully two-thirds of antisocial five-year-olds will be delinquent by age 15.((Jennifer L. White, Terrie E. Moffitt, Felton Earls, and Lee Robins, “How ​early can we tell: Predictors of childhood conduct disorder ​and adolescent delinquency,” //​Criminology//​ 28 (1990): 507. )) +Most delinquents are children who have been [[effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates|abandoned by their fathers]]. They are often deprived also of the love and affection they need from their mother. Inconsistent parenting,​((Ronald L. Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// ​38, (1989)273-281, citing original work by Gerald R. Patterson (1982, 1986).)) family turmoil,​((Lisabeth DiLalla et al., “Aggression and Delinquency:​ Family and Environmental Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 17, no. 3 (1988)233-246. )) and multiple other stresses (such as economic hardship and psychiatric illnesses)((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.)) that flow from these disagreements compound the rejection of these children by these parents,​((Ronald L. Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// ​38, (1989)273-281, citing original work by Gerald R. Patterson (1982, 1986).)) many of whom became criminals during childhood.((James D. Roff, “Identification of Boys at High Risk for Delinquency,​” //​Psychological Reports// ​58, (1986)615-618.)) With all these factors working against the child'​s normal development,​ by age five the future criminal already will tend to be aggressive, hostile, and hyperactive. Four-fifths of children destined to be criminals will be "​antisocial"​ by 11 years of age, and fully two-thirds of antisocial five-year-olds will be delinquent by age 15.((Jennifer L. White, Terrie E. Moffitt, Felton Earls, and Lee Robins, “How ​Early Can We Tell: Predictors of Childhood Conduct Disorder ​and Adolescent Delinquency,” //​Criminology//​ 28(1990): 507. )) 
  
-According to the professional literature on juvenile delinquency,​ Kevin Wright, professor of criminal justice at the State University of New York at Binghamton, writes: "​Research confirms that children raised in supportive, affectionate,​ and accepting homes are less likely to become deviant. Children rejected by parents are among the most likely to become delinquent."​((Kevin N. Wright and Karen E. Wright, “Family Life and Delinquency and Crime: A Policymaker’s Guide to the Literature,​” prepared under interagency agreement between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the U.S. Department of Justice, 1992. \\ Cynthia Osborne, Sara McLanahan, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn,​ “Young Children’s Behavioral Problems in Married and Cohabiting Families,​” Center for Research on Child Well-Being Working Paper 03-09 (2005). \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, No. 4 (November ​2003): 876-893.)) This rejection and abandonment can cause the child to release his feelings through anti-social or delinquent behavior.((Cicely N. Green, “A Child’s Primary Influence: How Inadequate Parental Attachment Leads to Deviant Behavior,​” McEndree University. Available at [[http://​www.mckendree.edu/​academics/​scholars/​issue17/​green.htm]]. Accessed July 7, 2015. ))+According to the professional literature on juvenile delinquency,​ Kevin Wright, professor of criminal justice at the State University of New York at Binghamton, writes: "​Research confirms that children raised in supportive, affectionate,​ and accepting homes are less likely to become deviant. Children rejected by parents are among the most likely to become delinquent."​((Kevin N. Wright and Karen E. Wright, “Family Life and Delinquency and Crime: A Policymaker’s Guide to the Literature,​” prepared under interagency agreement between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the U.S. Department of Justice, 1992. \\ Cynthia Osborne, Sara McLanahan, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn,​ “Young Children’s Behavioral Problems in Married and Cohabiting Families,​” Center for Research on Child Well-Being Working Paper 03-09 (2005). \\ Wendy D. Manning and Kathleen A. Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, no. 4 (2003): 876-893.)) This rejection and abandonment can cause the child to release his feelings through anti-social or delinquent behavior.((Cicely N. Green, “A Child’s Primary Influence: How Inadequate Parental Attachment Leads to Deviant Behavior,​” McEndree University. Available at [[http://​www.mckendree.edu/​academics/​scholars/​issue17/​green.htm]]. Accessed July 7, 2015. ))
  
 Many characteristics of broken families create the conditions for criminal behavior. Some of these include: Many characteristics of broken families create the conditions for criminal behavior. Some of these include:
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 ====3.1 Related American Demographics==== ====3.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the Adolescent Health Survey, adolescents who live in an intact married family are less likely to steal than those living in step-families,​ those whose parents are divorced, or those raised by cohabiting parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|Chart]]) ​+According to the Adolescent Health Survey, adolescents who live in an intact married family are less likely to steal than those living in step-families,​ those whose parents are divorced, or those raised by cohabiting parents.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Theft,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-22-24-156.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|Chart]]) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J04.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_theft.png?500 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-22-24-156.pdf|{{ :theft_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Theft by Family Structure}}]]
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth showed that 12 percent of adults who grew up with both biological parents married committed assault in their lifetime, followed by those who grew up in an intact, cohabiting family (14 percent), those who grew up in a divorced single-parent family (22 percent), those who grew up in a married stepfamily (23 percent), those who grew up in an alternate family structure [i.e. with grandparents,​ in foster homes, etc.] (26 percent), those who grew up with an always-single parent (29 percent), and those who grew up in a cohabiting stepfamily (34 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Assaulted Someone'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11H11.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11H11.pdf|Chart]]) ​+The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth showed that 12 percent of adults who grew up with both biological parents married committed assault in their lifetime, followed by those who grew up in an intact, cohabiting family (14 percent), those who grew up in a divorced single-parent family (22 percent), those who grew up in a married stepfamily (23 percent), those who grew up in an alternate family structure [i.e. with grandparents,​ in foster homes, etc.] (26 percent), those who grew up with an always-single parent (29 percent), and those who grew up in a cohabiting stepfamily (34 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Assaulted Someone'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-106.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-106.pdf|Chart]]) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11H11.pdf|{{ :ever_assaulted_someone_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?500 |"Ever Assaulted Someone"​}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-106.pdf|{{ :assaulted_someone_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"Ever Assaulted Someone"​}}]]
  
-Analysis of the Adolescent Health Survey showed that youth who lived in an intact married family were least likely to get into a fight.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15A11.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15A11.pdf|Chart]])+Analysis of the Adolescent Health Survey showed that youth who lived in an intact married family were least likely to get into a fight.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Fighting,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-13-15-153.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF15A11.pdf|{{ :a_consolidation_of_mapping_americas_family_structure_live_and_let_live_fighting.png?500 |Ever Got into a Fight}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-13-15-153.pdf|{{ :adolescent_who_have_been_in_a_fight_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Ever Got into a Fight}}]]
  
 =====4. School Adjustment and Achievement===== =====4. School Adjustment and Achievement=====
  
-By the age of five or six, small children who are deprived of parental love and supervision have become hostile and aggressive and, therefore, have greater difficulty forming friendships with normal children. This hostility also undermines their school work and success. Professor David P. Farrington'​s Cambridge University study finds a high correlation between school adjustment problems and later delinquency:​ "​Youths who dislike school and teachers, who do not get involved in school activities, and who are not committed to educational pursuits are more likely than others to engage in delinquent behavior."​((David P. Farrington, “Later Adult Life Outcomes of Offenders and Nonoffenders” ​in //Children at Risk: Assessment, Longitudinal Research, and Intervention//,​ ed. Michael Brambring, Friedrich Losel, Helmut Skowronel (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1989), 220. \\ Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.))+By the age of five or six, small children who are deprived of parental love and supervision have become hostile and aggressive and, therefore, have greater difficulty forming friendships with normal children. This hostility also undermines their school work and success. Professor David P. Farrington'​s Cambridge University study finds a high correlation between school adjustment problems and later delinquency:​ "​Youths who dislike school and teachers, who do not get involved in school activities, and who are not committed to educational pursuits are more likely than others to engage in delinquent behavior."​((David P. Farrington, “Later Adult Life Outcomes of Offenders and Nonoffenders” //Children at Risk: Assessment, Longitudinal Research, and Intervention//,​ ed. Michael Brambring, Friedrich Losel, Helmut Skowronel (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1989), 220. \\ Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.))
  
-Children of single-parent families were far more likely to have [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|academic]] and [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|behavioral problems]] in school and were far more likely to become delinquents.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, (November ​2003): 876-893. \\ Sandra L. Jofferth, “Residential Father Family Type and Child Well-Being: Investment Versus Selection,​” //​Demography//​ 43, No. 1 (February ​2006): 53-77. \\ Donna K. Ginther, “Family Structure and Children’s Educational Outcomes: Blended Families, Stylized Facts, and Descriptive Regressions,​” //​Demography//​ 41, No. 4 (November 2004): 671-696. \\ Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-Being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64 (May 2002): 472-488. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family//, ​Vol. 65 (August ​2003), pp. 681–699. \\ Julie Artis, “Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being Among Kindergarten Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, No. 1 (February ​2007): 222-236. \\ Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, No. 1 (September ​2006): 551-581. \\ Sandra L. Hofferth, “Residential Father Family Type and Child Well- Being,” //​Demography//​ 43, No. 1 (February ​2006): 53-77. \\ Marcia J. Carlson and Mary E. Corcoran, “Family Structure and Children’s Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, No. 3 (August ​2001): 779-792. \\ Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 66, No. 2 (May 2004): 351-367. \\ Shannon E. Cavanagh and Kathryn S. Schiller, “Marital Transitions,​ Parenting, and Schooling: Exploring the Link Between Family- Structure History and Adolescents’ Academic Status,” //Sociology of Education// 79, No. 4 (October ​2006): 329-354. \\ Toby Parcel and Mikaela Dufur, “Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement,​” //Social Forces// 79, No. 3 (March 2001): 881-911. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, No. 3 (August ​2003): 681-699. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, No. 3 (August ​2003): 681-699.)) On the contrary, [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|children of intact married families]] are more likely to attend college.((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Several of the Most Common Family Structures on the Academic Achievement of Eighth Graders,” //Marriage and Family Review//, ​Vol. 30 (2000), pp. 73–97.)) Future criminals tend not to have good verbal memory at school or the ability to grasp the meaning of concepts, including moral concepts. They generally fail to learn reading and computation skills, undermining their performance in the middle grades. They often fail in the later grades and have no or low aspirations for school or work.((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.)) They begin to be truant and eventually drop out of school in their teens.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society//, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1990), pp. 306-354.)) Typically, before they drop out of school they already have begun a serious apprenticeship in crime by having far higher rates of delinquency than do those who graduate.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society//, Vol. 21, No. 3 (1990), pp. 306-354.))+Children of single-parent families were far more likely to have [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|academic]] and [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|behavioral problems]] in school and were far more likely to become delinquents.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, (2003): 876-893. \\ Sandra L. Jofferth, “Residential Father Family Type and Child Well-Being: Investment Versus Selection,​” //​Demography//​ 43, no. 1 (2006): 53-77. \\ Donna K. Ginther, “Family Structure and Children’s Educational Outcomes: Blended Families, Stylized Facts, and Descriptive Regressions,​” //​Demography//​ 41, no. 4 (November 2004): 671-696. \\ Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-Being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64(2002): 472-488. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// ​65, (2003)681–699. \\ Julie Artis, “Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being Among Kindergarten Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, no. 1 (2007): 222-236. \\ Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (2006): 551-581. \\ Sandra L. Hofferth, “Residential Father Family Type and Child Well- Being,” //​Demography//​ 43, no. 1 (2006): 53-77. \\ Marcia J. Carlson and Mary E. Corcoran, “Family Structure and Children’s Behavioral and Cognitive Outcomes,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, no. 3 (2001): 779-792. \\ Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 66, no. 2 (2004): 351-367. \\ Shannon E. Cavanagh and Kathryn S. Schiller, “Marital Transitions,​ Parenting, and Schooling: Exploring the Link Between Family- Structure History and Adolescents’ Academic Status,” //Sociology of Education// 79, no. 4 (2006): 329-354. \\ Toby Parcel and Mikaela Dufur, “Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement,​” //Social Forces// 79, no. 3 (2001): 881-911. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, no. 3 (2003): 681-699. \\ Suet-Ling Pong and Gillian Hampden-Thompson,​ “Family Policies and Children’s School Achievement in Single- Versus Two-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, no. 3 (2003): 681-699.)) On the contrary, [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|children of intact married families]] are more likely to attend college.((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Several of the Most Common Family Structures on the Academic Achievement of Eighth Graders,” //Marriage and Family Review// ​30, (2000)73–97.)) Future criminals tend not to have good verbal memory at school or the ability to grasp the meaning of concepts, including moral concepts. They generally fail to learn reading and computation skills, undermining their performance in the middle grades. They often fail in the later grades and have no or low aspirations for school or work.((Rolf Loeber, “Development and Risk Factors of Juvenile Antisocial Behavior and Delinquency,​” //Clinical Psychology Review// 10, no. 1 (1990): 1-41.)) They begin to be truant and eventually drop out of school in their teens.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society// 21, no. 3 (1990)306-354.)) Typically, before they drop out of school they already have begun a serious apprenticeship in crime by having far higher rates of delinquency than do those who graduate.((Jeffrey Fagan and Edward Pabon, “Contributions of Delinquency and Substance Use to School Dropout Among Inner-City Youths,” //Youth & Society// 21, no. 3 (1990)306-354.))
  
 Once again, all these problems are rooted in unfavorable family conditions. In a study on juvenile delinquency,​ Merry Morash, professor of criminology at Michigan State University, analyzed four large data sets: the British-funded Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development and the U.S. federally funded National Longitudinal Study of Youth, National Survey of Children, and Philadelphia Cohort study. Examining these four large studies of the development of children, particularly the connection between home, education, and crime, she concludes: "[The] mother'​s [young] age is related to delinquency primarily through its association with low hopes for education, negative school experiences,​ father absence, and limited monitoring of the child."​((Merry Morash and Lila Rucker, “An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother’s Age at Childbearing to Her Children’s Delinquency in Four Data Sets,” //Crime & Delinquency//​ 35, no. 1 (1989): 45-93.)) Once again, all these problems are rooted in unfavorable family conditions. In a study on juvenile delinquency,​ Merry Morash, professor of criminology at Michigan State University, analyzed four large data sets: the British-funded Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development and the U.S. federally funded National Longitudinal Study of Youth, National Survey of Children, and Philadelphia Cohort study. Examining these four large studies of the development of children, particularly the connection between home, education, and crime, she concludes: "[The] mother'​s [young] age is related to delinquency primarily through its association with low hopes for education, negative school experiences,​ father absence, and limited monitoring of the child."​((Merry Morash and Lila Rucker, “An Exploratory Study of the Connection of Mother’s Age at Childbearing to Her Children’s Delinquency in Four Data Sets,” //Crime & Delinquency//​ 35, no. 1 (1989): 45-93.))
  
-In 2013, 40.6% of all U.S. births were to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|unmarried women]]. Among Black women, roughly 71% of births were unmarried births, among Hispanic women that percentage drops to 53%, and among White women that percentage drops to 29% .((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” Congressional Research Services Report (2014) ​available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​(accessed ​September 4, 2015).+In 2013, 40.6% of all U.S. births were to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_society|unmarried women]]. Among Black women, roughly 71% of births were unmarried births, among Hispanic women that percentage drops to 53%, and among White women that percentage drops to 29% .((Carmen Solomon-Fears,​ “Nonmarital Births: An Overview,​” Congressional Research Services Report (2014). Available ​at [[http://​fas.org/​sgp/​crs/​misc/​R43667.pdf]] ​Accessed ​September 4, 2015.
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 This entry draws heavily from [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]].)) A major revival of the intact married family is a necessary component of any policy initiative striving to reduce juvenile crime. ​ This entry draws heavily from [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]].)) A major revival of the intact married family is a necessary component of any policy initiative striving to reduce juvenile crime. ​