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effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2017/05/23 08:33]
marri [3.1 Related American Demographics]
effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2017/05/23 08:45]
marri
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 =====1. Influence of Family Structure===== =====1. Influence of Family Structure=====
  
-Family intactness is one of the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|greatest positive influences]] ((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|no determinable influence]] on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013). Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.+Family intactness is one of the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|greatest positive influences]] ((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|no determinable influence]] on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013). Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.
  
 Family intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates. Family intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates.
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 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|Chart]])  ​+According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|Chart]])  ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|{{ :repeating_a_grade_and_family_structure.png?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|{{ :children_who_repeated_a_grade_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====5. Family Religious Practice===== =====5. Family Religious Practice=====
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 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf|Chart]])+The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf|{{ :parents_contacted_about_child_s_behavior_religious_and_fs.png?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|{{ :parents_contact_by_school_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems}}]]
  
-According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation. \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-3-religious-attendance-family-structure-and-schoolperformance-of-us-high-school-students]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J10.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation. \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J10.pdf|{{ :hs_performance_religion_and_fs.png?500 |GPA English/ Math by Religious Attendance and Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |GPA English/ Math by Religious Attendance and Family Structure}}]]
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America,"​ The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 20, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf|Chart]] Below)+The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America,"​ The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 20, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf|{{ :hs_performance_by_religion_2.png?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_religious_practice.jpg?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
 =====6. Family Socioeconomic Status===== =====6. Family Socioeconomic Status=====
  
-Intact married families are [[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|stronger economically]].((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11E70.pdf]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., //​Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)// Washington, DC: Child Trends 2009, 4-5. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|larger incomes]],​((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005).)) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), 79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20, (1999): 459.+Intact married families are [[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|stronger economically]].((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/​]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., //​Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)// Washington, DC: Child Trends 2009, 4-5. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|larger incomes]],​((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005).)) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), 79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20, (1999): 459.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​marriage-structure-education|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/​|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))