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effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2015/11/12 11:46]
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effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2017/05/23 08:45]
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 =====1. Influence of Family Structure===== =====1. Influence of Family Structure=====
  
-Family intactness is one of the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|greatest positive influences]] ((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|no determinable influence]] on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013). Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.+Family intactness is one of the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|greatest positive influences]] ((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|no determinable influence]] on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013). Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.
  
 Family intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates. Family intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates.
  
-=====2. Raw Achievement=====+=====2. Achievement ​and Attainment=====
  
 Elementary school children from [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact biological families]] earn higher reading and math test scores than children in cohabiting, [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|divorced]]-single,​ and always-single parent families.((David J. Armor, //​Maximizing Intelligence//​ (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), 80.)) Adolescents from non-intact families have lower scores than their counterparts in intact married families on math, science, history, and reading tests.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Parents’ Marital Disruption and Its Uneven Effect on Children’s Academic Performance- A Simulation Model,” //Social Science Research// 37, (2008): 456.)) Adolescents living in [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact married families]] or married stepfamilies (with stepfathers) performed similarly on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, but adolescents living in single-mother families or in cohabiting stepfamilies (with their biological mother) did worse than those in intact families.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, (2003): 876–893.)) ​ Elementary school children from [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact biological families]] earn higher reading and math test scores than children in cohabiting, [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|divorced]]-single,​ and always-single parent families.((David J. Armor, //​Maximizing Intelligence//​ (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), 80.)) Adolescents from non-intact families have lower scores than their counterparts in intact married families on math, science, history, and reading tests.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Parents’ Marital Disruption and Its Uneven Effect on Children’s Academic Performance- A Simulation Model,” //Social Science Research// 37, (2008): 456.)) Adolescents living in [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact married families]] or married stepfamilies (with stepfathers) performed similarly on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, but adolescents living in single-mother families or in cohabiting stepfamilies (with their biological mother) did worse than those in intact families.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, (2003): 876–893.)) ​
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 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), high school students who live in intact married families have a higher average combined GPA in English and Math (2.9) than those in married stepfamilies,​ divorced families, or intact cohabiting families (2.6) and those in always single parent families or cohabiting stepfamilies (2.5).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/content/mappingamerica-family-structure-and-school-performance]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf|Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), high school students who live in intact married families have a higher average combined GPA in English and Math (2.9) than those in married stepfamilies,​ divorced families, or intact cohabiting families (2.6) and those in always single parent families or cohabiting stepfamilies (2.5).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf|{{ :fs_and_school_performance_of_u.s._high_school_students_2.png?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
-Based on the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​Likely to Receive Mostly A’s by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf|Chart]])+Based on the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​Likely to Receive Mostly A’s by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-100.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-100.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf|{{ :students_who_recieve_mostly_a_s_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-100.pdf|{{ :received_mostly_as.jpg?500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]
  
-Similarly, 36 percent of individuals who came from intact, married families received a Bachelor’s degree, followed by those from intact, cohabiting families (20 percent), single divorced-parent families (17 percent), married stepfamilies (16 percent), always-single parent families (8 percent), and cohabiting stepfamilies (7 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a Bachelor’s Degree'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11G27.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11G27.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​ +Similarly, 36 percent of individuals who came from intact, married families received a Bachelor’s degree, followed by those from intact, cohabiting families (20 percent), single divorced-parent families (17 percent), married stepfamilies (16 percent), always-single parent families (8 percent), and cohabiting stepfamilies (7 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a Bachelor’s Degree'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-105.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-105.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
- +
-[[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF11G27.pdf|{{ :​ever_recieved_a_bachelors_degree_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?​500 |"Ever Received a Bachelor'​s Degree"​}}]]+
  
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-105.pdf|{{ :​received_a_bachelors_degree_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 |"Ever Received a Bachelor'​s Degree"​}}]]
 ===== 3. School Behavior ===== ===== 3. School Behavior =====
  
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 ====3.1 Related American Demographics==== ====3.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Children’s Health shows that children who live with both biological parents or with two [[effects_of_adoption_on_the_child_s_education|adoptive parents]] are less likely to have their school report behavior problems to their parents than are children who live in households that do not include both parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09E89.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09E89.pdf|Chart]]) ​+The National Survey of Children’s Health shows that children who live with both biological parents or with two [[effects_of_adoption_on_the_child_s_education|adoptive parents]] are less likely to have their school report behavior problems to their parents than are children who live in households that do not include both parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|Chart]]) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09E89.pdf|{{ :parents_contacted_about_children_s_behavior_and_family_structure.png?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|{{ :parents_contact_by_school_for_childs_behavior_problems_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent). ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent). ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-19-21-155.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_expulsion_or_suspension_from_school.png?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|{{ :adolescents_suspended_or_expelled_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====4. Parental Impact on Education===== =====4. Parental Impact on Education=====
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 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|Chart]])  ​+According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|Chart]])  ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|{{ :repeating_a_grade_and_family_structure.png?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|{{ :children_who_repeated_a_grade_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====5. Family Religious Practice===== =====5. Family Religious Practice=====
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 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf|Chart]])+The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf|{{ :parents_contacted_about_child_s_behavior_religious_and_fs.png?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|{{ :parents_contact_by_school_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems}}]]
  
-According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation. \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-3-religious-attendance-family-structure-and-schoolperformance-of-us-high-school-students]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J10.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation. \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08J10.pdf|{{ :hs_performance_religion_and_fs.png?500 |GPA English/ Math by Religious Attendance and Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |GPA English/ Math by Religious Attendance and Family Structure}}]]
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America,"​ The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 20, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf|Chart]] Below)+The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America,"​ The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 20, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf|{{ :hs_performance_by_religion_2.png?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_religious_practice.jpg?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
-=====6. Family ​Income=====+=====6. Family ​Socioeconomic Status=====
  
-Intact married families are [[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|stronger economically]].((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11E70.pdf]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., //​Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)// Washington, DC: Child Trends 2009, 4-5. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|larger incomes]],​((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005).)) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), 79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20, (1999): 459.+Intact married families are [[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|stronger economically]].((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/​]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., //​Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)// Washington, DC: Child Trends 2009, 4-5. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|larger incomes]],​((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005).)) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), 79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20, (1999): 459.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​marriage-structure-education|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/​|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))