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effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2015/10/15 11:34]
marri2 [5.1 Related American Demographics]
effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education [2017/05/23 08:45]
marri
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 ==========Effects of Family Structure on Children'​s Education========== ==========Effects of Family Structure on Children'​s Education==========
  
-Most parents want their children to succeed in school but are often unaware that family life itself has a significant impact on their child’s academic capacity. ​We list below the effects of the intact family on children’s educational achievement and school behavior, as well as its effect on the home environment.+Most parents want their children to succeed in school but are often unaware that family life itself has a significant impact on their child’s academic capacity. ​Below are the effects of the intact family on children’s educational achievement and school behavior, as well as its effect on the home environment.
  
 =====1. Influence of Family Structure===== =====1. Influence of Family Structure=====
  
-Family intactness is one of the greatest positive influences on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has no determinable influence on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013) available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.+Family intactness is one of the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|greatest positive influences]] ((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) ​on high school graduation rates. Only the fraction of the adult population that has graduated from high school surpasses family intactness in its degree of influence. The former is presumably a strong effect of inter-generational behavior modeling and may as well indicate norms-setting. These influences remain and continue to be precisely determinable when earnings controls are added. This is in contrast to college graduation'​s influence, which is indeterminate whether or not earnings controls are included. The fractions of blacks or Hispanics in an area has [[effects_of_family_structure_on_policy_outcomes|no determinable influence]] on high school graduation rates once other controls((See Table 2 in Henry Potrykus and Patrick Fagan, “U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family,” (January 2013). Available ​at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​u-s-social-policy-dependence-on-the-family/]] for a list of the controls and other methodological considerations.)) have been implemented.
  
-In sum, family ​intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates.+Family ​intactness should be viewed as one of the principle generative agents of high school graduation levels in an area: Part of the strong, beneficial influence of high school graduation levels on the outcomes studied should be attributed to family intactness'​ influence on high school graduation rates.
  
-=====2. Raw Achievement=====+=====2. Achievement ​and Attainment=====
  
-Elementary school children from intact biological families earn higher reading and math test scores than children in cohabiting ​and divorced single and always-single parent families.((David J. Armor, //​Maximizing Intelligence//​ (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003)80.)) Adolescents from non-intact families have lower scores than their counterparts in intact married families on math, science, history, and reading tests.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Parents’ Marital Disruption and Its Uneven Effect on Children’s +Elementary school children from [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact biological families]] earn higher reading and math test scores than children in cohabiting, [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|divorced]]-singleand always-single parent families.((David J. Armor, //​Maximizing Intelligence//​ (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003)80.)) Adolescents from non-intact families have lower scores than their counterparts in intact married families on math, science, history, and reading tests.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Parents’ Marital Disruption and Its Uneven Effect on Children’s Academic Performance- A Simulation Model,” //Social Science Research// 37(2008): 456.)) Adolescents living in [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact married families]] or married stepfamilies (with stepfathers) performed similarly on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, but adolescents living in single-mother families or in cohabiting stepfamilies (with their biological mother) did worse than those in intact families.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65(2003): 876–893.)) ​
-Academic Performance- A Simulation Model,” //Social Science Research// 37 (2008): 456.)) Adolescents living in intact married families or married stepfamilies (with stepfathers) performed similarly on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, but adolescents living in single-mother families or in cohabiting stepfamilies (with their biological mother) did worse than those in intact families.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating,​ Married, and Single- +
-Parent Families,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65 (November ​2003): 876–893.)) ​+
  
-Adolescents from single-parent families and cohabiting families are more likely to have low achievement scores, lower expectations for college, lower grades, and higher dropout rates than children from intact biological families (after controlling for other family socioeconomic factors).((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994)79.))+Adolescents from single-parent families and cohabiting families are more likely to have low achievement scores, lower expectations for college, lower grades, and higher dropout rates than children from intact biological families (after controlling for other family socioeconomic factors).((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994)79.))
  
 Over 57 percent of children who live in intact biological families enter college, compared to 32.5 percent of children in stepfamilies,​ 47.5 percent of children in single-parent families, and 31.8 percent of children who live in families with neither parent present.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) Students from disrupted families are less likely to complete four-year college than their peers from intact biological families.((Michele Ver Ploeg, “Children from Disrupted Families as Adults: Family Structure, College Attendance and College Completion,​” //Economics of Education Review// 21, no. 2 (2002): 174.))  ​ Over 57 percent of children who live in intact biological families enter college, compared to 32.5 percent of children in stepfamilies,​ 47.5 percent of children in single-parent families, and 31.8 percent of children who live in families with neither parent present.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) Students from disrupted families are less likely to complete four-year college than their peers from intact biological families.((Michele Ver Ploeg, “Children from Disrupted Families as Adults: Family Structure, College Attendance and College Completion,​” //Economics of Education Review// 21, no. 2 (2002): 174.))  ​
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 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), high school students who live in intact married families have a higher average combined GPA in English and Math (2.9) than those in married stepfamilies,​ divorced families, or intact cohabiting families (2.6) and those in always single parent families or cohabiting stepfamilies (2.5).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good, The Heritage Foundation, 2006, chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/content/mappingamerica-family-structure-and-school-performance]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf|Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), high school students who live in intact married families have a higher average combined GPA in English and Math (2.9) than those in married stepfamilies,​ divorced families, or intact cohabiting families (2.6) and those in always single parent families or cohabiting stepfamilies (2.5).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, ​"A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," ​The Heritage Foundation, ​(2006). Chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]])
  
-{{ :fs_and_school_performance_of_u.s._high_school_students_2.png?500 |}}+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :​average_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
-Based on the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​Likely to Receive Mostly A’s by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf|Chart]])+Based on the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​Likely to Receive Mostly A’s by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-100.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-100.pdf|Chart]])
  
-{{ :students_who_recieve_mostly_a_s_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?500 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-100.pdf|{{ :received_mostly_as.jpg?500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]
  
-Similarly, 36 percent of individuals who came from intact, married families received a Bachelor’s degree, followed by those from intact, cohabiting families (20 percent), single divorced-parent families (17 percent), married stepfamilies (16 percent), always-single parent families (8 percent), and cohabiting stepfamilies (7 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a Bachelor’s Degree'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11G27.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11G27.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+Similarly, 36 percent of individuals who came from intact, married families received a Bachelor’s degree, followed by those from intact, cohabiting families (20 percent), single divorced-parent families (17 percent), married stepfamilies (16 percent), always-single parent families (8 percent), and cohabiting stepfamilies (7 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a Bachelor’s Degree'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-105.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-105.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-{{ :ever_recieved_a_bachelors_degree_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?500 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-105.pdf|{{ :received_a_bachelors_degree_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"Ever Received a Bachelor'​s Degree"​}}]]
 ===== 3. School Behavior ===== ===== 3. School Behavior =====
  
-First-grade students born to married mothers are less likely to behave disruptively (i.e. disobey a teacher, be aggressive with other children) than those born to single or cohabiting mothers.((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” ​ Social Forces 85, no. 1 (September ​2006): 551-581.))  +First-grade students born to [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|married mothers]] are less likely to behave disruptively (i.e. disobey a teacher, be aggressive with other children) than those born to single or cohabiting mothers.((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” ​//Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (2006): 551-581.))  
-Adolescents in single-parent families, married stepfamilies,​ or cohabiting stepfamilies are more likely than adolescents in intact married families to have ever been suspended or expelled from school, to have participated in delinquent activities, and to have problems getting along with teachers, doing homework, and paying attention in school.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-ParentFamilies,”  Journal of Marriage and Family 65 (November ​2003): 876–893. Thomas L. Hanson, “Does Parental Conflict Explain Why Divorce Is Negatively Associated with Child Welfare?​” ​ Social Forces 77, no. 4 (1999): 1304-1035.)) Children and adolescents in intact married families are more likely to care about doing well in school, to do schoolwork without being forced, to do more than “just enough to get by,” and to do their homework.((Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​” ​ Journal of Marriage and the Family 66, no. 2 (2004): 362.)) ​  +Adolescents in single-parent families, married stepfamilies,​ or cohabiting stepfamilies are more likely than adolescents in intact married families to have ever been suspended or expelled from school, to have participated in delinquent activities, and to have problems getting along with teachers, doing homework, and paying attention in school.((Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, “Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabiting, Married, and Single-Parent Families,​”  ​//Journal of Marriage and Family// 65(2003): 876–893. Thomas L. Hanson, “Does Parental Conflict Explain Why Divorce Is Negatively Associated with Child Welfare?​” ​//Social Forces// 77, no. 4 (1999): 1304-1035.)) Children and adolescents in intact married families are more likely to care about doing well in school, to do schoolwork without being forced, to do more than “just enough to get by,” and to do their homework.((Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​”  ​//Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, no. 2 (2004): 362.)) ​  
-Adolescents who live in blended families and stepfamilies are less positively engaged in school than are adolescents from intact biological families.((Sarah Halpern-Meekin and Laura Tach, “Heterogenity in Two-Parent Families and Adolescent Well-Being,​” ​ Journal of Marriage and the Family 70, no. 2 (2008): 445.)) ​ Compared to adolescents from intact married families, those from divorced families and cohabiting families have many more unexcused absences and skip more classes.((Barry D. Ham, “The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors,​”  ​Journalof ​Divorce and Remarriage 38, no. 3 (2003): 180.)) ​ Students from stepfamilies and single-parent families are three times as likely to drop out of school as students from intact biological families, even when controlling for socioeconomic status.((Herbert Zimiles and Valerie E. Lee, “Adolescent Family Structure and Educational Progress,​” ​ Developmental Psychology 27, no. 2 (1991): 314-320.)) ​ Eighty-five percent of adolescents in intact biological families graduate from high school, compared to 67.2 percent in single-parent families, 65.4 percent in stepfamilies,​ and 51.9 percent who live with no parents.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” ​ Social Forces 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) ​ Sixty-nine percent of children from intact biological families applied to college, according to one study, compared to only 60 percent of students who were not from intact families.((Dean Lillard and Jennifer Gerner, “Getting to the Ivy League: How Family Composition Affects College Choice,​” ​ The Journal of Higher Education 70, no. 6 (1999): 714-715.)) ​ One study revealed that children born to married mothers are nearly two times more likely to finish high school than children born to unmarried mothers.((Sharon Sassler, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Renae Addo, Adrianne M. Frech, & Elizabeth C. Cooksey, "​Family ​structure ​and high school graduationhow children born to unmarried mothers fare," ​ Genus [Online], Vol 69 Issue 2 (2013)) ​+Adolescents who live in blended families and stepfamilies are less positively engaged in school than are adolescents from intact biological families.((Sarah Halpern-Meekin and Laura Tach, “Heterogenity in Two-Parent Families and Adolescent Well-Being,​”  ​//Journal of Marriage and the Family// 70, no. 2 (2008): 445.)) ​ Compared to adolescents from intact married families, those from [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|divorced families]] and cohabiting families have many more unexcused absences and skip more classes.((Barry D. Ham, “The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors,​”  ​//Journal of Divorce and Remarriage// 38, no. 3 (2003): 180.)) ​ Students from stepfamilies and single-parent families are three times as likely to drop out of school as students from intact biological families, even when controlling for socioeconomic status.((Herbert Zimiles and Valerie E. Lee, “Adolescent Family Structure and Educational Progress,​” ​//Developmental Psychology// 27, no. 2 (1991): 314-320.)) ​ Eighty-five percent of adolescents in intact biological families graduate from high school, compared to 67.2 percent in single-parent families, 65.4 percent in stepfamilies,​ and 51.9 percent who live with no parents.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” ​//Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) ​ Sixty-nine percent of children from intact biological families applied to college, according to one study, compared to only 60 percent of students who were not from intact families.((Dean Lillard and Jennifer Gerner, “Getting to the Ivy League: How Family Composition Affects College Choice,​” ​//The Journal of Higher Education// 70, no. 6 (1999): 714-715.)) ​ One study revealed that children born to married mothers are nearly two times more likely to finish high school than [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children|children born to unmarried mothers]].((Sharon Sassler, Kristi Williams, Fenaba Renae Addo, Adrianne M. Frech, & Elizabeth C. Cooksey, "​Family ​Structure ​and High School GraduationHow Children Born to Unmarried Mothers Fare,"  ​//Genus [Online]// 69, no. 2 (2013). )) 
  
 ====3.1 Related American Demographics==== ====3.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Children’s Health shows that children who live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are less likely to have their school report behavior problems to their parents than are children who live in households that do not include both parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09E89.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09E89.pdf|Chart]]) ​+The National Survey of Children’s Health shows that children who live with both biological parents or with two [[effects_of_adoption_on_the_child_s_education|adoptive parents]] are less likely to have their school report behavior problems to their parents than are children who live in households that do not include both parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-52-54-166.pdf|Chart]]) ​
  
-{{ :parents_contacted_about_children_s_behavior_and_family_structure.png?500 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf|{{ :parents_contact_by_school_for_childs_behavior_problems_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems by Family Structure}}]]
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent). (( This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08I10.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and II), 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent). ((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-19-21-155.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-19-21-155.pdf|Chart]] Below) 
 + 
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-19-21-155.pdf|{{ :​adolescents_suspended_or_expelled_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]
  
-{{ :​family_structure_and_expulsion_or_suspension_from_school.png?​500 |}} 
 =====4. Parental Impact on Education===== =====4. Parental Impact on Education=====
  
-The adolescent children of single-parent families or stepfamilies reported that their parents had lower educational expectations for them, were less likely to monitor schoolwork, and supervised social activities less than the parents of children in intact biological families.((Nan M. Astone and Sara S. McLanahan, “Family Structure, Parental Practices, and High School Completion,​” //American Sociological Review// 56 (1991): 309–320.)) ​+The adolescent children of single-parent families or stepfamilies reported that their parents had lower educational expectations for them, were less likely to monitor schoolwork, and supervised social activities less than the parents of children in intact biological families.((Nan M. Astone and Sara S. McLanahan, “Family Structure, Parental Practices, and High School Completion,​” //American Sociological Review// 56(1991): 309–320.)) ​
  
-Divorce and traumatic life-events impact the likelihood that a child will finish high school. One study found that children who experienced marital dissolution before they were 18 years old had a significantly lower chance of finishing high school than children in intact families. Also, the younger the child was at the time of his or her parents’ divorce, the less of a chance that they would graduate.((Lisa Strohschein,​ Noralou Roos, and Marni Brownell, “Family ​structure histories ​and high school completion: Evidence ​from a population based registry,” //The Canadian Journal of Sociology// ​Vol34 Issue 1 (2009) ​p.83-104))  ​+[[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|Divorce]] and traumatic life-events impact the likelihood that a child will finish high school. One study found that children who experienced marital dissolution before they were 18 years old had a significantly lower chance of finishing high school than children in intact families. Also, the younger the child was at the time of his or her parents’ divorce, the less of a chance that they would graduate.((Lisa Strohschein,​ Noralou Roos, and Marni Brownell, “Family ​Structure Histories ​and High School Completion: Evidence ​From A Population Based Registry,” //The Canadian Journal of Sociology// ​34, no. 1 (2009)83-104))  ​
  
-Whereas 31.3 percent of sons and 26.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families plan to get a college degree, 42.4 percent of sons and 35.9 percent of daughters in single-parent families do not plan to get a college degree.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36 (2007): 1010-1023.)) Sixty percent of mothers in intact married families expected their child to graduate college, compared to 40 percent of mothers in cohabiting stepfamilies and 36 percent of always-single mothers.((Kelly R. Raley, Michelle L. Frisco, and Elizabeth Wildsmith, “Maternal Cohabitation and Educational +Whereas 31.3 percent of sons and 26.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families plan to get a college degree, 42.4 percent of sons and 35.9 percent of daughters in single-parent families do not plan to get a college degree.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36(2007): 1010-1023.)) Sixty percent of mothers in intact married families expected their child to graduate college, compared to 40 percent of mothers in cohabiting stepfamilies and 36 percent of always-single mothers.((Kelly R. Raley, Michelle L. Frisco, and Elizabeth Wildsmith, “Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success,” //Sociology of Education// 78, no. 2 (2005): 151.)) About 40 percent of sons and 44.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families aim to get more education after obtaining their undergraduate degree, compared to 30.7 percent of sons and 35.3 percent of daughters from single-parent families.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36, no. 8 (2007): 1017.))  ​
-Success,” //Sociology of Education// 78, no. 2 (2005): 151.)) About 40 percent of sons and 44.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families aim to get more education after obtaining their undergraduate degree, compared to 30.7 percent of sons and 35.3 percent of daughters from single-parent families.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36, no. 8 (2007): 1017.))  ​+
  
-The intact biological family facilitates parental involvement in adolescent children’s education.((Sabry M. Abd-EI-Fattah,​ “Effects of family background ​and parental involvement ​on Egyptian ​adolescents’ academic achievement ​and school disengagementa structural equation modelling analysis,” //Social Psychology of Education// 9 (2006): 153.)) Adolescents in intact biological families reported that their parents participated more in school, that they discussed school more with their parents, and that they knew more of their friends’ parents than those in single-parent families and stepfamilies.((Suet-Ling Pong, “Family Structure, School Context, and Student Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 3 (1997): 741.))+The intact biological family facilitates parental involvement in adolescent children’s education.((Sabry M. Abd-EI-Fattah,​ “Effects of Family Background ​and Parental Involvement ​on Egyptian ​Adolescents’ Academic Achievement ​and School DisengagementA Structural Equation Modelling Analysis,” //Social Psychology of Education// 9(2006): 153.)) Adolescents in intact biological families reported that their parents participated more in school, that they discussed school more with their parents, and that they knew more of their friends’ parents than those in single-parent families and stepfamilies.((Suet-Ling Pong, “Family Structure, School Context, and Student Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 3 (1997): 741.))
  
 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|Chart]])  ​+According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|Chart]])  ​
  
-{{ :repeating_a_grade_and_family_structure.png?500 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf|{{ :children_who_repeated_a_grade_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====5. Family Religious Practice===== =====5. Family Religious Practice=====
  
-Children in intact married families are more likely to worship regularly.((Note:​ Repeated sample data in Mapping America charts from different national surveys, including the General Social Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the National Survey of Family Growth, and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, bears this out. (Patrick F. Fagan)) First-graders and kindergartners whose parents attend religious services are less likely to experience anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem,​ and sadness.((John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu, and Martin L. Levin, “Religion and Child Development:​ Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,” //Social Science Research// 37, no. 1 (March 2007): 18-36.)) Compared to children whose parents did not attend church at all, children whose parents attended church services exhibited more self-control while under parental supervision in their homes.((John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu, and Martin L. Levin, “Religion and Child Development:​ Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,” //Social Science Research// 37, no. 1 (March 2007): 18-36.)) For children from families in poverty, regular weekly worship has profound positive effects on their educational attainment.((Mark D. Regnerus, “Staying on rack in School: Religious Influences in High- and Low-Risk Settings,​” //Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion// 42, no. 4 (2003): 646.)) Adolescents who attend church regularly tend to complete more years of school.((Linda D. Loury, “Does Church Attendance Really Increase Schooling?​” //Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion// 43, no. 1 (March 2004): 119-127.)) ​+Children in intact married families are more likely to worship regularly.((Note:​ Repeated sample data in Mapping America charts from different national surveys, including the General Social Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the National Survey of Family Growth, and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, bears this out.)) First-graders and kindergartners whose parents ​[[effects_of_religious_practice_on_health|attend religious services]] are less likely to experience anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem,​ and sadness.((John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu, and Martin L. Levin, “Religion and Child Development:​ Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,” //Social Science Research// 37, no. 1 (2007): 18-36.)) Compared to children whose parents did not attend church at all, children whose parents attended church services exhibited more self-control while under parental supervision in their homes.((John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu, and Martin L. Levin, “Religion and Child Development:​ Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,” //Social Science Research// 37, no. 1 (2007): 18-36.)) For children from families in poverty, regular weekly worship has profound positive effects on their [[effects_of_religious_practice_on_education|educational attainment]].((Mark D. Regnerus, “Staying on rack in School: Religious Influences in High- and Low-Risk Settings,​” //Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion// 42, no. 4 (2003): 646.)) Adolescents who attend church regularly tend to complete more years of school.((Linda D. Loury, “Does Church Attendance Really Increase Schooling?​” //Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion// 43, no. 1 (2004): 119-127.)) ​
  
 ====5.1 Related American Demographics==== ====5.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09F25.pdf|Chart]])+The National Survey of Children’s Health showed that only 21 percent of children who worship frequently and live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are the object of their school reporting behavior problems to parents, compared to a much larger 53 percent of children who worship less than monthly and live in single-parent or reconstituted families.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parents Contacted by School about Their Children’s Behavior Problems, Religious Attendance, and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf|Chart]]) 
 + 
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-52-54-166.pdf|{{ :​parents_contact_by_school_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?​500 |Percent of Children Whose Parents Were Contacted by School about Children'​s Behavior Problems}}]]
  
-{{ :parents_contacted_about_child_s_behavior_religious_and_fs.png?​500 ​|}}+According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation. \\ National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-According to  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, teenagers in intact married families who attend religious services weekly or more than monthly have a higher combined English and math GPA (2.9) than those in non-intact families who attend religious services monthly or never (2.5).((National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As cited by Patrick F. Fagan, “Religious Attendance, Family Structure, and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at +[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ ​:average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure_and_religious_practice.jpg?500 |GPA EnglishMath by Religious Attendance and Family Structure}}]]
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-3-religious-attendance-family-structure-and-schoolperformance-of-us-high-school-students]]Accessed 12 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/​EF08J10.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+
  
-{{ :hs_performance_religion_and_fs.png?​500 ​|}}+The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America,"​ The Heritage Foundation, (2006). Chart 20, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf]])) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health also showed that teenagers who attend religious activities weekly or more had the highest average combined GPA for English and Math (2.9).((Patrick F. Fagan, "​Religious Attendance and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C36.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08C36.pdf|Chart]] Below)+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_gpa_in_english_and_math_by_religious_practice.jpg?​500 ​|Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
-{{ :​hs_performance_by_religion_2.png?​500 |}} +=====6. Family ​Socioeconomic Status=====
-=====6. Family ​Income=====+
  
-Intact married families are stronger economically.((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11E70.pdf]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)” (2009): 4-5. Washington, DC: Child Trends. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have larger incomes,​((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// ​Vol 15 Issue 2 (2005))) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994)79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20 (1999): 459.+Intact married families are [[effects_of_marriage_on_financial_stability|stronger economically]].((Patrick F. Fagan, Andrew Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, “Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage.” Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/​]].Accessed 16 September 2011.)) Infants and toddlers from higher-income families are more likely to master age-appropriate cognitive and language skills than those from lower-income families.((Tamara Halle, et al., //Disparities in Early Learning and Development:​ Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B)// Washington, DC: Child Trends ​2009, 4-5. Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/​Files/​Child_Trends-2009_07_10_FR_DisparitiesEL.pdf]]. Accessed 19 September 2011.)) Intact biological families tend to have [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|larger incomes]],((Adam Thomas, and Isabel Sawhill, "For Love and Money? the Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,"​ //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2 (2005).)) which affects the neighborhoods in which families can afford to live((Sara McLanahan and Gary Sandefur, //Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994)79.)) and thereby the quality and resources of the schools their children will attend. Intact biological families save earlier and more for (and expect to spend more to support) their children’s first year in college.((Kevin Zvoch, “Family Type and Investment in Education: A Comparison of Genetic and Stepparent Families,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 20(1999): 459.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​marriage-structure-education|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF13B33.pdf|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/​|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children'​s Educational Attainment]] and [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/|U.S. Social Policy Dependence on the Family]].))