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effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education [2015/10/13 09:36]
cordell [1.1 Outcomes and Achievement]
effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education [2017/05/19 08:47] (current)
marri
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 ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Education========== ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Education==========
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 =====1. Diminished Learning Capacity===== ​ =====1. Diminished Learning Capacity===== ​
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 ====1.1 Outcomes and Achievement==== ====1.1 Outcomes and Achievement====
  
-Divorce and separation correlate positively with diminished school achievement and performance.((Milling Kinard and Helen Reinherz, “Effects of Marital Disruption on Children’s School Aptitude and Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 48 (1986): 289-290.  +Divorce and separation correlate positively((A positive correlation exists when, as one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases, and vice versa.)) ​with diminished school achievement and performance.((Milling Kinard and Helen Reinherz, “Effects of Marital Disruption on Children’s School Aptitude and Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 48(1986): 289-290.  
-\\ Potter, ​D., Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​ //Journal of Marriage and Family//72 (2010): 933, 940-941. +\\  D. Potter"Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​" ​//Journal of Marriage and Family// 72(2010): 933, 940-941. 
-\\ Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15 (2001): 355-370.)) Daniel Potter of the University of Virginia found that elementary school children who experience parental divorce immediately begin performing worse academically than their peers from intact families. This gap persists through elementary school.((Daniel Potter, “Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship between Divorce and Children’s Academic Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 72, no.4 (2010): 941.))+\\ Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15(2001): 355-370.)) Daniel Potter of the University of Virginia found that elementary school children who experience parental divorce immediately begin performing worse academically than their peers from intact families. This gap persists through elementary school.((Daniel Potter, “Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship between Divorce and Children’s Academic Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 72, no.4 (2010): 941.))
  
-Children exposed to unilateral divorce are less educated by adulthood.((Jonathan Gruber, “Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce,” //Journal of Labor Economics// 22, no. 4 (2004): 830.)) Children have lower educational aspirations and test scores during the process of their parents’ marital disruption.((Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64 (2002): 479.)) ​+Children exposed to unilateral divorce are less educated by adulthood.((Jonathan Gruber, “Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce,” //Journal of Labor Economics// 22, no. 4 (2004): 830.)) Children have lower educational aspirations and test scores during the process of their parents’ marital disruption.((Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64(2002): 479.)) ​
  
-Children of divorced parents are also more likely to be held back a grade and have lower grade point averages (GPAs).((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Several of the Most Common Family Structures on the Academic Achievement of Eighth Graders,” //Marriage and Family Review// 30 (2000): 88.)) High school students in intact families have GPAs 11 percent higher than those from divorced families,​((Barry D. Ham, “The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 38, no. 3 (2003): 176.)) and children in intact married families have the highest combined English and math GPAs.((Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/content/mapping-america-family-structure-and-school-performance]]. Accessed 29 August 2011.)) One study (controlling for parental education, parental occupation, family size, etc.), found that children whose parents divorce get about seven-tenths of a year less education than children from intact families.((M.D.R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational Attainment of the Children of Divorce: Australia, 1940–1990,​” //Journal of Sociology// 37, no. 3 (2001): 285.)) Kindergarteners with divorced parents have an average math and reading score about three points lower than kindergarteners with nondivorced parents.((Potter, ​D., Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​ //Journal of Marriage and Family//72 (2010): 940-941.))+Children of divorced parents are also more likely to be held back a grade and have lower grade point averages (GPAs).((William H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Several of the Most Common Family Structures on the Academic Achievement of Eighth Graders,” //Marriage and Family Review// 30(2000): 88.)) High school students in intact families have GPAs 11 percent higher than those from divorced families,​((Barry D. Ham, “The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 38, no. 3 (2003): 176.)) and children in [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact married families]] have the highest combined English and math GPAs.((Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf]]. Accessed 29 August 2011.)) One study (controlling for parental education, parental occupation, family size, etc.), found that children whose parents divorce get about seven-tenths of a year less education than children from intact families.((M.D.R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational Attainment of the Children of Divorce: Australia, 1940–1990,​” //Journal of Sociology// 37, no. 3 (2001): 285.)) Kindergarteners with divorced parents have an average math and reading score about three points lower than kindergarteners with nondivorced parents.((D. ​Potter "​Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​" ​//Journal of Marriage and Family// 72(2010): 940-941.))
  
-Children whose mothers divorced and remained divorced did worse over time on Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition tests (which gauge children’s ability to recognize and pronounce words) than children from intact married families.((Kimberly Anne Shaff, Nicholas H. Wolfinger, Lori Kowaleski-Jones,​ and Ken R. Smith, “Family Structure Transitions and Child Achievement,​” //​Sociological Spectrum// 28, no. 6 (2008): 691-694.)) By age 13, there is an average difference of half a year in reading ability between children of divorced parents and children from intact families.((Jim Stevenson and Glenda Fredman, “The Social Environmental Correlates of Reading Ability,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 31, no.5 (1990): 689-690.)) On the CAT (Common Admissions Test) Math/Verbal Percentile Scores children from married, always-intact families scored in the 58th percentile, followed by children from married stepfamilies and divorced single-parent families (48th percentile).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​CAT (Common Admissions Test) Math/Verbal Percentile Scores'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11J08.pdf]]))+Children whose mothers divorced and remained divorced did worse over time on Peabody Individual Achievement Test reading recognition tests (which gauge children’s ability to recognize and pronounce words) than children from [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|intact married families]].((Kimberly Anne Shaff, Nicholas H. Wolfinger, Lori Kowaleski-Jones,​ and Ken R. Smith, “Family Structure Transitions and Child Achievement,​” //​Sociological Spectrum// 28, no. 6 (2008): 691-694.)) By age 13, there is an average difference of half a year in reading ability between children of divorced parents and children from intact families.((Jim Stevenson and Glenda Fredman, “The Social Environmental Correlates of Reading Ability,” //Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry//​ 31, no.5 (1990): 689-690.)) On the CAT (Common Admissions Test) Math/Verbal Percentile Scores children from married, always-intact families scored in the 58th percentile, followed by children from married stepfamilies and divorced single-parent families (48th percentile).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​CAT (Common Admissions Test) Math/Verbal Percentile Scores'​ by Current Religious Attendance and Structure of Family of Origin,"​ Mapping America ​Project. ​Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-108.pdf]]))
  
-In the Kent State University Impact of Divorce Project, which used a national sample study of 699 elementary students, children from divorced homes performed worse in reading, spelling, and math and repeated a grade more frequently than did children in intact two-parent families. The project’s findings led the researchers to conclude that children and young adolescents suffered long-term negative effects following divorce.((John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long-Term perspectives on Children’s Adjustment,​” //Applied Social Psychology Annual// 7 (1987): 202-237. \\ Jeynes, William H., "Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents?,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 37, no. 1/2 (February ​2002): 109,​111-112.)) Teenagers who experience parental divorce score lower than their counterparts from intact families on math, science, and history tests.((Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano and Daniela Vuri, “Parental Divorce and Students'​ Performance:​ Evidence from Longitudinal Data,” //Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics//​ 69, no. 3 (2007): 327.)) ​+In the Kent State University Impact of Divorce Project, which used a national sample study of 699 elementary students, children from divorced homes performed worse in reading, spelling, and math and repeated a grade more frequently than did children in intact two-parent families. The project’s findings led the researchers to conclude that children and young adolescents suffered ​[[long_term_effects_of_divorce|long-term negative effects following divorce]].((John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long-Term perspectives on Children’s Adjustment,​” //Applied Social Psychology Annual// 7(1987): 202-237. \\ Jeynes, William H., "Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents?,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 37, no. 1/2 (2002): 109,​111-112.)) Teenagers who experience parental divorce score lower than their counterparts from intact families on math, science, and history tests.((Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano and Daniela Vuri, “Parental Divorce and Students'​ Performance:​ Evidence from Longitudinal Data,” //Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics//​ 69, no. 3 (2007): 327.)) ​
  
-Some studies show that the correlation between adolescent family disruption and educational attainment is weaker after controlling for the family’s socioeconomic status. This finding likely reflects the influence of income on each.((Pattrick ​Fagan, ​Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage” (Washington,​ D.C.: Marriage and Religion Research Institute, 2011). Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11E70.pdf]].)) One of divorce’s attendant problems is the financial instability it inflicts on those who experience it. +Some studies show that the correlation between adolescent family disruption and educational attainment is weaker after controlling for the family’s socioeconomic status. This finding likely reflects the influence of income on each.((Patrick ​Fagan, ​//Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage// (Washington,​ D.C.: Marriage and Religion Research Institute, 2011). Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​marriage-and-economic-well-being-the-economy-of-the-family-rises-or-falls-with-marriage/]].)) One of divorce’s attendant problems is the [[effects.of.divorce.on.financial.stability|financial instability]] it inflicts on those who experience it. 
  
 Lack of family transitions after divorce does not eliminate the effect of the divorce on student academic performance,​ but it does provide their performance in math and social studies a certain degree of protection, compared to students who live in unstable families with multiple family transitions.((Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Postdivorce Family Stability and Changes in Adolescents'​ Academic Performance:​ A Growth-Curve Model,” //Journal of Family Issues// 30, no. 11 (2009): 1546-1547.)) ​ Lack of family transitions after divorce does not eliminate the effect of the divorce on student academic performance,​ but it does provide their performance in math and social studies a certain degree of protection, compared to students who live in unstable families with multiple family transitions.((Yongmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Postdivorce Family Stability and Changes in Adolescents'​ Academic Performance:​ A Growth-Curve Model,” //Journal of Family Issues// 30, no. 11 (2009): 1546-1547.)) ​
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 ====1.3 Consequences of Moving==== ====1.3 Consequences of Moving====
-Residential mobility accounts for 29 percent of the academic performance gap between children living in stepfamilies and children living with both biological parents.((Nan Marie Astone and Sara S. McLanahan, “Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and School Dropout: A Research Note,” //​Demography//​ 31 (1994): 582.)) Moving tends to increase behavioral, emotional, and academic problems for adolescents.((John P. Hoffman and Robert A. Johnson, “A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 60 (1998): 635. \\ Scanlon, ​Edward, and Kevin Devine, "​Residential Mobility and Youth Well-Being: Research, Policy, and Practice Issues,"​ //Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare// 28, no. 1 (March 2001): 134. +Residential mobility accounts for 29 percent of the academic performance gap between children living in stepfamilies and children living with both biological parents.((Nan Marie Astone and Sara S. McLanahan, “Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and School Dropout: A Research Note,” //​Demography//​ 31(1994): 582.)) Moving tends to increase behavioral, emotional, and academic problems for adolescents.((John P. Hoffman and Robert A. Johnson, “A National Portrait of Family Structure and Adolescent Drug Use,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 60(1998): 635. \\ Edward ​Scanlon, and Kevin Devine, "​Residential Mobility and Youth Well-Being: Research, Policy, and Practice Issues,"​ //Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare// 28, no. 1 (2001): 134. 
-\\ Haynie, ​Dana L., and Scott J. South, "​Residential Mobility and Adolescent Violence,"​ //Social Forces// 84, no. 1 (September ​2005): 363, 373.)) This happens more often for adolescents with divorced or separated parents, and can contribute to lower GPAs.((South, ​Scott J., Dana L. Haynie, and Sunita Bose, "​Residential Mobility and the Onset of Adolescent Sexual Activity,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family//2005: 499, 508.)) Overall, the less instability of any sort in the child’s life following divorce, the less the impact on the child.+\\ Dana L. Haynie, and Scott J. South, "​Residential Mobility and Adolescent Violence,"​ //Social Forces// 84, no. 1 (2005): 363, 373.)) This happens more often for adolescents with divorced or separated parents, and can contribute to lower GPAs.((Scott J. South, Dana L. Haynie, and Sunita Bose, "​Residential Mobility and the Onset of Adolescent Sexual Activity,"​ //Journal of Marriage and Family// ​(2005): 499, 508.)) Overall, the less instability of any sort in the child’s life following divorce, the less the impact on the child.
  
 ====1.4 Related American Demographics==== ====1.4 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​ +According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two [[effects_of_adoption_on_the_child_s_education|adoptive parents]] are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
- +
-{{ :​repeating_a_grade_and_family_structure.png?​500 |}}+
  
-Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a greater fraction of children from intact married families earn mostly A’s in school. About 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent). ((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Likely to Receive Mostly A's’ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-100-students-who-receive-mostly-as]]Accessed 13 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF11A16.pdfChart]] Below)+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|{{ ​:children_who_repeated_a_grade_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 ​|Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]
  
-{{ :students_who_recieve_mostly_a_s_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?​500 ​|}}+Based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a greater fraction of children from intact married families earn mostly A’s in school. About 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent). ((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Likely to Receive Mostly A's’ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-100.pdf]]. Accessed 13 September 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-100.pdfChart]] Below)
  
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-100.pdf|{{ :​received_mostly_as.jpg?​500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]
 =====2. Parental Involvement===== =====2. Parental Involvement=====
-The intact biological family facilitates parental involvement in adolescent children’s education.((Sabry M. Abd-EI-Fattah,​ “Effects of family background ​and parental involvement ​on Egyptian ​adoles-cents’ ​academic achievement ​and school disengagementa structural equation modelling analysis,” //Social Psychology of Education// 9 (2006): 153.)) Adolescents in intact biological families reported that their parents participated more in school, that they discussed school more with their parents, and that they knew more of their friends’ parents than those in single-parent families and stepfamilies.((Suet-Ling Pong, “Family Structure, School Context, and Student Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 3 (1997): 741.)) In divorced families, parental involvement cannot make up for the detriment to their children’s education.((Jeynes, ​William H., "Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents?,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 37, no. 1/2 (February 2002): 109, 111-112.)) Fathers in always-intact married families are more involved in their children’s homework than are stepfathers.((Alan C. Acock and David H. Demo, Family diversity and well-being (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994). As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (April 1998): 150.))  ​+The [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|intact biological family]] facilitates parental involvement in adolescent children’s education.((Sabry M. Abd-EI-Fattah,​ “Effects of Family Background ​and Parental Involvement ​on Egyptian ​Adoles-cents’ ​Academic Achievement ​and School DisengagementA Structural Equation Modelling Analysis,” //Social Psychology of Education// 9(2006): 153.)) Adolescents in intact biological families reported that their parents participated more in school, that they discussed school more with their parents, and that they knew more of their friends’ parents than those in single-parent families and stepfamilies.((Suet-Ling Pong, “Family Structure, School Context, and Student Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 3 (1997): 741.)) In divorced families, parental involvement cannot make up for the detriment to their children’s education.((William H. Jeynes, "Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents?,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 37, no. 1/2 (February 2002): 109, 111-112.)) Fathers in always-intact married families are more involved in their children’s homework than are stepfathers.((Alan C. Acock and David H. Demo, //Family diversity and well-being// (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994). As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (1998): 150.))  ​
  
 =====3. Behavior at School===== =====3. Behavior at School=====
  
 ====3.1 Psychosocial Outcomes==== ====3.1 Psychosocial Outcomes====
-One study found that children in pre-disrupted families (whose parents’ relationship would later dissolve) exhibit more academic, psychological,​ behavioral, and drug-related problems than children whose families remained intact.((Yongmin Sun, “Family Environment and Adolescents’ Well-Being Before and After Parents’ Marital Disruption: A Longitudinal Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 63 (2001): 699, 704, 709.)) First grade students born to married mothers are less likely to behave disruptively (i.e. disobey a teacher, be aggressive with other children) than those born to single or cohabiting mothers.((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (September ​2006): 551-581.)) Daniel Potter, referenced above, ​also found that the deleterious effect of divorce on children’s psychosocial well-being is an important factor in poor math and reading scores.((Daniel Potter, “Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 72, no. 4 (2010): 944.)) ​+One study found that children in pre-disrupted families (whose parents’ relationship would later dissolve) exhibit more academic, psychological,​ behavioral, and drug-related problems than children whose families remained intact.((Yongmin Sun, “Family Environment and Adolescents’ Well-Being Before and After Parents’ Marital Disruption: A Longitudinal Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 63(2001): 699, 704, 709.)) First grade students born to married mothers are less likely to behave disruptively (i.e. disobey a teacher, be aggressive with other children) than those born to [[effects_of_out-of-wedlock_births_on_children|single or cohabiting mothers]].((Shannon E. Cavanagh and Aletha C. Houston, “Family Instability and Children’s Early Problem Behavior,​” //Social Forces// 85, no. 1 (2006): 551-581.)) Daniel Potter also found that the deleterious effect of divorce on children’s psychosocial well-being is an important factor in poor math and reading scores.((Daniel Potter, “Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship Between Divorce and Children'​s Academic Achievement,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 72, no. 4 (2010): 944.)) ​
  
 ====3.2 Engagement==== ====3.2 Engagement====
-Children and adolescents in intact married families are more likely to care about doing well in school, to do schoolwork without being forced, to do more than “just enough to get by,” and to do their homework.((Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, no. 2 (2004): 362.)) Adolescents who live in blended families and stepfamilies are less positively engaged in school than are adolescents from intact biological families.((Sarah Halpern-Meekin and Laura Tach, “Heterogenity in Two-Parent Families and Adolescent Well-Being,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 70, no. 2 (2008): 445.)) ​+Children and adolescents in [[effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education|intact married families]] are more likely to [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|care about doing well]] in school, to do schoolwork without being forced, to do more than “just enough to get by,” and to do their homework.((Susan L. Brown, “Family Structure and Child Well-Being: The Significance of Parental Cohabitation,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, no. 2 (2004): 362.)) Adolescents who live in blended families and stepfamilies are less positively engaged in school than are adolescents from intact biological families.((Sarah Halpern-Meekin and Laura Tach, “Heterogenity in Two-Parent Families and Adolescent Well-Being,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 70, no. 2 (2008): 445.)) ​
  
 ====3.3 Absence==== ====3.3 Absence====
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 ====3.4 Dropout, Suspension, or Expulsion==== ====3.4 Dropout, Suspension, or Expulsion====
-Children who experienced their parents’ divorce or separation are less likely to complete high school.((Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, no. 2 (1994): 179. \\  ​Evans, ​M.D.R., Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (February ​2009): 134-135.)) An Australian study found that children of divorced families are 26 percent more likely to drop out of secondary school than children raised in intact families, and found that remarriage did not alleviate the effects of divorce on children’s educational attainment.((M. D. R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational ​attainment ​of the children ​of divorce: Australia, 1940-90,” //Journal of Sociology// 37 (2001): 287.)) Eighty-five percent of adolescents in intact biological families graduate from high school, compared to 67.2 percent in single-parent families, 65.4 percent in stepfamilies,​ and 51.9 percent who live with no parents.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.))  ​+Children who experienced their parents’ divorce or separation are less likely to complete high school.((Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, no. 2 (1994): 179. \\ M.D.R. ​Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (2009): 134-135.)) An Australian study found that children of divorced families are 26 percent more likely to drop out of secondary school than children raised in intact families, and found that remarriage did not alleviate the effects of divorce on children’s educational attainment.((M. D. R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational ​Attainment ​of The Children ​of Divorce: Australia, 1940-90,” //Journal of Sociology// 37(2001): 287.)) Eighty-five percent of adolescents in intact biological families graduate from high school, compared to 67.2 percent in single-parent families, 65.4 percent in stepfamilies,​ and 51.9 percent who live with no parents.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.))  ​
  
 =====4. College Attainment===== =====4. College Attainment=====
  
-Children whose parents((Catherine E. Ross and John Mirowsky, “Parental Divorce, Life-Course Disruption, and Adult Depression,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 61 (1999): 1040. \\ Evans, ​M.D.R., Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (February ​2009): 129.)) or grandparents((Paul R. Amato and Jacob Cheadle, “The Long Reach of Divorce: Divorce and Child Well-being Across Three Generations,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67 (2005): 202.)) divorce tend to have fewer years of education. ​+Children whose parents((Catherine E. Ross and John Mirowsky, “Parental Divorce, Life-Course Disruption, and Adult Depression,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 61(1999): 1040. \\ M.D.R. ​Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (2009): 129.)) or grandparents((Paul R. Amato and Jacob Cheadle, “The Long Reach of Divorce: Divorce and Child Well-being Across Three Generations,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67(2005): 202.)) divorce tend to have fewer years of education. ​
  
-Divorce and separation reduces children’s likelihood of attending college.((Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, no. 2 (1994): 179. \\ Evans, ​M.D.R., Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (February ​2009): 135.)) Furthermore,​ 33 percent of students who have already completed secondary school but who have experienced their parents’ divorce graduate from college, compared to 40 percent among their peers from intact families. Over 57 percent of children who live in intact biological families enter college, compared to 32.5 percent of children in stepfamilies,​ 47.5 percent of children in single-parent families, and 31.8 percent of children who live in families without either parent present.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) ​ However, it seems that parental divorce has a greater impact on likelihood to complete secondary school than college.((M. D. R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational Attainment of the Children of Divorce: Australia, 1940–1990,​” //Journal of Sociology// 37, no. 3 (2001): 287.)) Children from intact married families have the highest high school graduation rate,​((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Ever Received a High School Degree’ by Structure of Family of Origin and Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://​marri.frc.org/get.cfm?​i=MA10J06]]. Accessed 30 August 2011.)) and are more likely to gain more education after graduating from high school than those from other family structures.((Jan O. Jonsson and Michael Gahler, “Family Dissolution,​ Family Reconstitution,​ and Children'​s Educational Careers: Recent Evidence for Sweden,” //​Demography//​ 34, no. 2 (1997): 285. \\ Evans, ​M.D.R., Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (February 2009): 135.))  ​+Divorce and separation reduces children’s likelihood of attending college.((Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, no. 2 (1994): 179. \\ M.D.R. ​Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (2009): 135.)) Furthermore,​ 33 percent of students who have already completed secondary school but who have experienced their parents’ divorce graduate from college, compared to 40 percent among their peers from intact families. Over 57 percent of children who live in intact biological families enter college, compared to 32.5 percent of children in stepfamilies,​ 47.5 percent of children in single-parent families, and 31.8 percent of children who live in families without either parent present.((Gary D. Sandefur, Sara McLanahan, and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz,​ “The Effects of Parental Marital Status during Adolescence on High School Graduation,​” //Social Forces// 71, no. 1 (1992): 112.)) ​ However, it seems that parental divorce has a greater impact on likelihood to complete secondary school than college.((M. D. R. Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, “Educational Attainment of the Children of Divorce: Australia, 1940–1990,​” //Journal of Sociology// 37, no. 3 (2001): 287.)) Children from intact married families have the highest high school graduation rate,​((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Ever Received a High School Degree’ by Structure of Family of Origin and Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://​marri.us/wp-content/​uploads/​MA-99.pdf]]. Accessed 30 August 2011.)) and are more likely to gain more education after graduating from high school than those from other family structures.((Jan O. Jonsson and Michael Gahler, “Family Dissolution,​ Family Reconstitution,​ and Children'​s Educational Careers: Recent Evidence for Sweden,” //​Demography//​ 34, no. 2 (1997): 285. \\ M.D.R. ​Evans, Jonathan Kelley, and Richard A. Wanner, "​Consequences of Divorce for Childhood Education: Australia, Canada, and the USA, 1940–1990,"​ //​Comparative Sociology// 8, no. 1 (February 2009): 135.))  ​
  
 ====4.1 College Expectations==== ====4.1 College Expectations====
-Youth living in married stepfamilies and cohabiting stepfamilies (i.e., with the mother’s live-in boyfriend/​partner) and single-parent families after a divorce or separation have lower college expectations than youth who have always lived in intact families.((Kathryn Harker Tillman, “Family Structure Pathways and Academic Disadvantage among Adolescents in Stepfamilies,​” //​Sociological Inquiry// 77, no. 3 (2007): 408.)) Sixty percent of mothers in intact married families expected their child to graduate college, compared to 40 percent of mothers in co-habiting stepfamilies and 36 percent of always-single mothers.((Kelly R. Raley, Michelle L. Frisco, and Elizabeth Wildsmith, “Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success,” //Sociology of Education// 78, no. 2 (2005): 151.)) Correspondingly, ​sixty-nine ​percent of children from intact biological families applied to college, according to one study, compared to only 60 percent of students who were not from intact families.((Dean Lillard and Jennifer Gerner, “Getting to the Ivy League: How Family Composition Affects College Choice,” //The Journal of Higher Education// 70, no. 6 (1999): 714-715.)) About 40 percent of sons and 44.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families aim to get more education after obtaining their undergraduate degree, compared to 30.7 percent of sons and 35.3 percent of daughters from single-parent families.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36, no. 8 (2007): 1017.))+Youth living in married stepfamilies and cohabiting stepfamilies (i.e., with the mother’s live-in boyfriend/​partner) and single-parent families after a divorce or separation have lower college expectations than youth who have always lived in intact families.((Kathryn Harker Tillman, “Family Structure Pathways and Academic Disadvantage among Adolescents in Stepfamilies,​” //​Sociological Inquiry// 77, no. 3 (2007): 408.)) Sixty percent of mothers in intact married families expected their child to graduate college, compared to 40 percent of mothers in co-habiting stepfamilies and 36 percent of always-single mothers.((Kelly R. Raley, Michelle L. Frisco, and Elizabeth Wildsmith, “Maternal Cohabitation and Educational Success,” //Sociology of Education// 78, no. 2 (2005): 151.)) Correspondingly, ​69 percent of children from intact biological families applied to college, according to one study, compared to only 60 percent of students who were not from intact families.((Dean Lillard and Jennifer Gerner, “Getting to the Ivy League: How Family Composition Affects College Choice,” //The Journal of Higher Education// 70, no. 6 (1999): 714-715.)) About 40 percent of sons and 44.7 percent of daughters from intact biological families aim to get more education after obtaining their undergraduate degree, compared to 30.7 percent of sons and 35.3 percent of daughters from single-parent families.((Rashmi Garg, Stella Melanson, and Elizabeth Levin, “Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors,” //Journal of Youth and Adolescence//​ 36, no. 8 (2007): 1017.))
  
 ====4.2 Related American Demographics==== ====4.2 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 91 percent of individuals who grew up with married biological parents received a high school degree. They are followed by those who grew up in a married stepfamily (80 percent), those who grew up with a single, divorced parent (76 percent), those who grew up in a cohabiting stepfamily (68 percent), those who grew up with an always-single parent (63 percent), and those who grew up in an intact cohabiting family (60 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a High School Degree'​ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10K10.pdf]] \\ \\ \\ This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|The Effects of Divorce on Children]] and [[http://​marri.us/​marriage-structure-education|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children’s Educational Attainment]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10K10.pdf| Chart]] Below)+According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 91 percent of individuals who grew up with married biological parents received a high school degree. They are followed by those who grew up in a married stepfamily (80 percent), those who grew up with a single, divorced parent (76 percent), those who grew up in a cohabiting stepfamily (68 percent), those who grew up with an always-single parent (63 percent), and those who grew up in an intact cohabiting family (60 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "'​Ever Received a High School Degree'​ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-99.pdf]] \\ \\ \\ This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/|The Effects of Divorce on Children]] and [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/marriage-family-structure-and-childrens-educational-attainment/​|Marriage, Family Structure, and Children’s Educational Attainment]])) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-99.pdf| Chart]] Below)
  
-{{ :ever_recieved_a_high_school_degree_by_structure_of_family_of_origin.png?500 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-99.pdf|{{ :received_high_school_degree_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"Ever Received a High School Degree"​}}]]