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effects_of_criminal_parents_on_children [2015/11/12 07:44]
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effects_of_criminal_parents_on_children [2015/12/04 06:30] (current)
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 ==========Effects of Criminal Parents on Children========== ==========Effects of Criminal Parents on Children==========
-//Research Synthesis Paper//: [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]] 
  
 =====1. Risk of Becoming a Delinquent===== =====1. Risk of Becoming a Delinquent=====
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 As Ronald Simons, professor of sociology at Iowa State University, writes, "​Ineffective parents produce aggressive first graders who are rejected by their peers and as a consequence must form friendships with other deviant youth."​((Ronald Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281.)) Likewise, Gerald Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center says: "Poor social skills, characterized by aversive or coercive interaction styles, lead directly to rejection by normal peers."​((John M. Gottman and John T. Parkhurst, “A Developmental Theory of Friendship and Acquantanceship Processes,​” //Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology//​ (1987), cited in Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) Patterson, the leading expert in this area, also makes the point that peer rejection tends to be linked to ineffective parenting: "​Specifically,​ early parent failures contribute to later skills deficits.... Parent skills in solving family problems correlate significantly with measures of academic skill and peer relations."​((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) In a study of 1,224 grade school boys, James D. Roff, professor of psychology at Eastern Michigan University, concludes that the boy at highest risk of becoming delinquent "was characterized by aggressive behavior in the context of peer rejection."​((James D. Roff, “Identification of Boys at High Risk for Delinquency,​” //​Psychological Reports// 58, no. 2 (1986): 615-618. A three-step screening procedure identified, from a sample of 1,224 grade school boys, a subsample of 60 subjects at increased risk for delinquency. Peer status, childhood aggression, and predelinquent behaviors were used in a sequential set of predictive tables. Relative improvement over chance provided a measure of predictive efficiency.)) ​ As Ronald Simons, professor of sociology at Iowa State University, writes, "​Ineffective parents produce aggressive first graders who are rejected by their peers and as a consequence must form friendships with other deviant youth."​((Ronald Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281.)) Likewise, Gerald Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center says: "Poor social skills, characterized by aversive or coercive interaction styles, lead directly to rejection by normal peers."​((John M. Gottman and John T. Parkhurst, “A Developmental Theory of Friendship and Acquantanceship Processes,​” //Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology//​ (1987), cited in Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) Patterson, the leading expert in this area, also makes the point that peer rejection tends to be linked to ineffective parenting: "​Specifically,​ early parent failures contribute to later skills deficits.... Parent skills in solving family problems correlate significantly with measures of academic skill and peer relations."​((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) In a study of 1,224 grade school boys, James D. Roff, professor of psychology at Eastern Michigan University, concludes that the boy at highest risk of becoming delinquent "was characterized by aggressive behavior in the context of peer rejection."​((James D. Roff, “Identification of Boys at High Risk for Delinquency,​” //​Psychological Reports// 58, no. 2 (1986): 615-618. A three-step screening procedure identified, from a sample of 1,224 grade school boys, a subsample of 60 subjects at increased risk for delinquency. Peer status, childhood aggression, and predelinquent behaviors were used in a sequential set of predictive tables. Relative improvement over chance provided a measure of predictive efficiency.)) ​
  
-Closed off from the community of their peers, future criminals search out companions who feel comfortable with them.  These companions are similarly aggressive-hostile children with whom they feel at ease and by whom they are accepted. The group thus reinforces its own aggressive-hostile ways and gradually rejects the conventional ways of normally attached children.((LeGrande Gardner and Donald J. Shoemaker, “Social Bonding and Delinquency:​ A Comparative Analysis,​” //​Sociological Quarterly// (1989): 481-499.)) Continued disruption at home, parents'​ continued use of harsh discipline,​((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) and the continued [[effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates|absence of a father]] all add to the growing hostility of these future delinquents. Association with delinquent peers -- almost all of whom come from similar family and parental backgrounds -- is the next significant development on the path to habitual crime.((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79. \\ Ronald Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281. For more details, see the series over 12 studies by Patterson and his colleagues since 1980 elucidating the dynamics and parameters of these behaviors and their consequences for the social development of the child.))+Closed off from the community of their peers, future criminals search out companions who feel comfortable with them.  These companions are similarly aggressive-hostile children with whom they feel at ease and by whom they are accepted. The group thus reinforces its own aggressive-hostile ways and gradually rejects the conventional ways of normally attached children.((LeGrande Gardner and Donald J. Shoemaker, “Social Bonding and Delinquency:​ A Comparative Analysis,​” //​Sociological Quarterly// (1989): 481-499.)) Continued disruption at home, parents'​ continued use of harsh discipline,​((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) and the continued [[effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates|absence of a father]] all add to the growing hostility of these future delinquents. Association with delinquent peers -- almost all of whom come from similar family and parental backgrounds -- is the next significant development on the path to habitual crime.((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985): 63-79. \\ Ronald Simons and Joan F. Robertson, “The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281. For more details, see the series over 12 studies by Patterson and his colleagues since 1980 elucidating the dynamics and parameters of these behaviors and their consequences for the social development of the child. 
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 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]]))