Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Next revision
Previous revision
effects_of_criminal_parents_on_children [2015/09/11 11:01]
marri created
effects_of_criminal_parents_on_children [2015/12/04 06:30] (current)
marri
Line 1: Line 1:
 ==========Effects of Criminal Parents on Children========== ==========Effects of Criminal Parents on Children==========
-//Research Synthesis Paper//: [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]] 
  
 =====1. Risk of Becoming a Delinquent===== =====1. Risk of Becoming a Delinquent=====
  
-Areas with more intact families tend to have lower levels of youth violence, whereas communities with non-intact families, especially single-parent families, report a significant increase in youth violence.((Chris Knnoester and Dana L. Haynie, “Community Context, Social Integration into Family, and Youth Violence,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, No 3. (August 2005): 767-780.)) Patterns of crime and violence are then transmitted on from generation to generation.((“The fact that delinquency is transmitted from one generation to another is indisputable”;​ West and Farrington, //The Delinquent Way of Life: Third Report of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development//,​ p. 109.)) ​  +In a longitudinal study of 394 families in England, David P. Farrington, professor of criminology at Cambridge University, found that approximately 4 percent of these families accrued almost half of the convictions of the entire sample: "The fact that delinquency is transmitted from one generation to the next is indisputable.... [F]ewer than 5 percent of the families accounted for almost half of the criminal convictions in the entire sample.... In order to achieve such concentration of crime in a small number of families, it is necessary that the parents and the brothers and sisters of offenders also be unusually likely to commit criminal acts."​((West and Farrington, //The Delinquent Way of Life: Third Report of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development//,​ p. 109., quoted in Cindy L. Hanson, S.W. Henggeler, W.F. Haefele, and J.D. Rodic, “The Demographic,​ Individual and Family Relationship Correlates of Serious and Repeated Crime Among Adolescents and Their Siblings,​” //Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology// ​52, (1984)528-538.))
- +
-In a longitudinal study of 394 families in England, David P. Farrington, professor of criminology at Cambridge University, found that approximately 4 percent of these families accrued almost half of the convictions of the entire sample.((“The fact that delinquency is transmitted from one generation to another ​is indisputable”; West and Farrington, //The Delinquent Way of Life: Third Report of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development//,​ p. 109., quoted in Cindy L. Hanson, S.W. Henggeler, W.F. Haefele, and J.D. Rodic, “The Demographic,​ Individual and Family Relationship Correlates of Serious and Repeated Crime Among Adolescents and Their Siblings,​” //Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology//, ​Vol. 52 (1984), pp. 528-538.)) ​"The fact that delinquency is transmitted from one generation to the next is indisputable.... [F]ewer than 5 percent of the families accounted for almost half of the criminal convictions in the entire sample.... In order to achieve such concentration of crime in a small number of families, it is necessary that the parents and the brothers and sisters of offenders also be unusually likely to commit criminal acts."+
  
 The findings for England, though dramatic and for a different culture and country, comport with the earlier U.S. research as summarized by Professor Kevin Wright of the State University of New York at Binghamton: The findings for England, though dramatic and for a different culture and country, comport with the earlier U.S. research as summarized by Professor Kevin Wright of the State University of New York at Binghamton:
Line 12: Line 9:
 > The Gluecks determined that delinquents were more likely than nondelinquents to have delinquent fathers and mothers. Subsequent studies supported the Gluecks'​ findings, observing that delinquent boys were more likely to have delinquent or criminal parents. In a study of the families of black delinquents in St. Louis, Robins found that a child'​s delinquent behavior was associated with 1) arrests of one or both of the parents in their adult years, and 2) a history of juvenile delinquency on the part of the parents. Children with two parents with criminal histories were at extremely high risk of delinquency.((Kevin N. Wright and Karen E. Wright, “Family Life and Delinquency and Crime: A Policymaker’s Guide to the Literature,​” prepared under interagency agreement between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the U.S. Department of Justice, 1992.)) ​ > The Gluecks determined that delinquents were more likely than nondelinquents to have delinquent fathers and mothers. Subsequent studies supported the Gluecks'​ findings, observing that delinquent boys were more likely to have delinquent or criminal parents. In a study of the families of black delinquents in St. Louis, Robins found that a child'​s delinquent behavior was associated with 1) arrests of one or both of the parents in their adult years, and 2) a history of juvenile delinquency on the part of the parents. Children with two parents with criminal histories were at extremely high risk of delinquency.((Kevin N. Wright and Karen E. Wright, “Family Life and Delinquency and Crime: A Policymaker’s Guide to the Literature,​” prepared under interagency agreement between the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the U.S. Department of Justice, 1992.)) ​
  
-Girls involved in crime tend to mate with (if not marry) men with criminal records.((D.J. West, Delinquency:​ Its Roots, Careers and Prospects (London: Heimann, 1982).)) Jill Leslie Rosenbaum of California State University, describing young delinquent women in her study, states: "[T]he men in the wards' lives bore a striking resemblance to the men chosen by their mothers. Many were significantly older than the girls and had criminal records."​((Jill L. Rosenbaum, “Family Dysfunction and Female Delinquency,​” Crime and Delinquency 35 (1989): 31-44.)) ​+Girls involved in crime tend to partner ​with (if not marry) men with criminal records.((D.J. West, //Delinquency:​ Its Roots, Careers and Prospects// (London: Heimann, 1982).)) Jill Leslie Rosenbaum of California State University, describing young delinquent women in her study, states: "[T]he men in the wards' lives bore a striking resemblance to the men chosen by their mothers. Many were significantly older than the girls and had criminal records."​((Jill L. Rosenbaum, “Family Dysfunction and Female Delinquency,​” ​//Crime and Delinquency// 35(1989): 31-44.)) ​
  
 =====2. Violent Families in Violent Neighborhoods===== =====2. Violent Families in Violent Neighborhoods=====
  
-Violent youth often come from violent parents. Violent youth are the most likely to have witnessed conflict and violence between their parents.((Candace Kruttschmitt,​ Linda Heath, and David A. Ward, “Family Violence, Television View Habits and Other Adolescent Experiences Related to Violent Criminal Behavior,​” //​Criminology//, ​Vol. 24 (1986), pp. 235-267.)) According to the National Survey of Children'​s Exposure to Violence, in 2011 22 percent of children ​ had witnessed violence in their homes, schools, and communities in the past year, and one in twelve children saw one family member assault another in the past year.((Child Trends, “Children'​s ​exposure ​to violence” (2013). Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/?​indicators=childrens-exposure-to-violence]].)) Children exposed to family violence are also the most likely to commit serious violent crime and to become "​versatile"​ criminals -- those engaged in a variety of crimes, including, theft, fraud, and drugs.((Margolin, ​G., & Elana B. G., "​Children'​s ​exposure ​to violence ​in the family ​and community" //Current Directions in Psychological// ​Science, ​13, no.4 (2004)152-155. \\ Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., Ormrod, R., Hamby, S., & Kracke, ​K., "​Children’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey,"​ U.S. Department of Justice ​(2009) Available at  [[http://​www.ncjrs.gov/​pdffiles1/​ojjdp/​227744.pdf]].)) Among these youths, victims of violent crime are more likely to be perpetrators of violent crimes.((Madeline Wordes and Michell Nunez, “Out ​vulnerable teenagers: Their victimizationits consequences, and directions ​for prevention ​and intervention,” //National Council on Crime and Delinquency//​ (2002). \\ Scott W. Menard, //Short and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Victimization//, ​US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2002).)) Physically or sexually abused boys commit the most violent offenses.  ​+Violent youth often come from [[effects_of_parents_on_crime_rates|violent parents]]. Violent youth are the most likely to have witnessed conflict and violence between their parents.((Candace Kruttschmitt,​ Linda Heath, and David A. Ward, “Family Violence, Television View Habits and Other Adolescent Experiences Related to Violent Criminal Behavior,​” //​Criminology// ​24, (1986)235-267.)) According to the National Survey of Children'​s Exposure to Violence, in 2011 twenty-two ​percent of children had witnessed violence in their [[effects_of_community_environment_on_juvenile_crime_rates|homes, schools, and communities]] in the past year, and one in twelve children saw one family member assault another in the past year.((Child Trends, “Children'​s ​Exposure ​to Violence” (2013). Available at [[http://​www.childtrends.org/?​indicators=childrens-exposure-to-violence]].)) Children ​[[effects_of_abuse_on_children|exposed to family violence]] are also the most likely to commit serious violent crime and to become "​versatile"​ criminals -- those engaged in a variety of crimes, including, theft, fraud, and drugs.((G. ​Margolin, & B. G. Elana, "​Children'​s ​Exposure ​to Violence ​in The Family ​and Community" //Current Directions in Psychological// ​ 13, no.4 (2004)152-155. \\ U.S. Department of Justice "​Children’s Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey," ​D. Finkelhor, H. A. Turner, R. Ormrod, S. Hamby, & K. Kracke, (2009) Available at  [[http://​www.ncjrs.gov/​pdffiles1/​ojjdp/​227744.pdf]].)) Among these youths, victims of violent crime are more likely to be perpetrators of violent crimes.((Madeline Wordes and Michell Nunez, “Out ​Vulnerable Teenagers: Their VictimizationIts Consequences, and Directions ​for Prevention ​and Intervention,” //National Council on Crime and Delinquency//​ (2002). \\ US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, //Short and Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Victimization//,​ Scott W. Menard, ​(2002).)) Physically or sexually abused boys commit the most violent offenses.  ​ 
 + 
 +Internal family violence is only one major contributor to adolescent violence in these socially disorganized neighborhoods. The [[effects_of_community_environment_on_juvenile_crime_rates|neighborhood itself]] (which includes the youth'​s violent peers, also rooted in their own broken families) is the other powerful contributor,​((Patrick F. Fagan, “The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community,​” //The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder//​ #1026 on Crime. Available at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime]]  
 +\\ Chris Knnoester and Dana L. Haynie, “Community Context, Social Integration into Family, and Youth Violence,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, no 3. (2005): 767-780.)) especially to violent delinquency.((D. Wayne Osgood and Jeff M. Chambers, “Social Disorganization Outside the Metropolis: An Analysis of Rural Youth Violence,​” //​Criminology//​ 38, no. 1 (2000): 81-115. \\ Elliott et al., //The Dynamics of Deviant Behavior: A National Survey Progress Report//​.)) ​
  
-Internal family violence is only one major contributor to adolescent violence in these socially disorganized neighborhoods. The neighborhood itself (which includes the youth'​s violent peers, also rooted in their own broken families) is the other powerful contributor,​((Patrick F. Fagan, “The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community,​” The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder #1026 on Crime. Available at [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime]]  +=====3. Rejection by Other Children=====
-\\ Chris Knnoester and Dana L. Haynie, “Community Context, Social Integration into Family, and Youth Violence,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, No 3. (August 2005): 767-780.)) especially to violent delinquency.((D. Wayne Osgood and Jeff M. Chambers, “Social Disorganization Outside the Metropolis: An Analysis of Rural Youth Violence,​” //​Criminology//​ 38, No. 1 (2000): 81-115. \\ Elliott et al., //The Dynamics of Deviant Behavior: A National Survey Progress Report//.)) This culture of aggression and violence is imported into the school. Consider these facts from the Centers for Disease Control:​(("​Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance,” Center of Disease Control (2012) available at [[http://​www.cdc.gov/​ViolencePrevention/​pdf/​YV-DataSheet-a.pdf]] (accessed August 20, 2015).))  +
-  * In 2011, 5.9% of youth in grades 9-12 report not going to school one or more days in the past month because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to/ from school.((Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR, Surveillance Summaries 2012; 61(no. SS-4). Available from [[www.cdc.gov/​mmwr/​pdf/​ss/​ss6104.pdf]].))  +
-  * In 2011, 16.6% of males in grades 9-12 reported carrying a weapon (gun, knife, or club) in the past thirty days.((Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR, Surveillance Summaries 2012; 61(no. SS-4). Available from [[www.cdc.gov/​mmwr/​pdf/​ss/​ss6104.pdf]].))  +
-  * In 2010, 784 juveniles (<18 years) were arrested for murder, 2,198 for forcible rape, and 35,001 for aggravated assault.((Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR, Surveillance Summaries 2012; 61(no. SS-4). Available from [[www.cdc.gov/​mmwr/​pdf/​ss/​ss6104.pdf]].)) +
-  * During the 2009-2010 school year, 17 homicides of school-age youths ages 5 to 18 years occurred at school.((Robers S, Zhang J, Truman J, Synder TD, "​Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2011," National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC; 2010. Available from [[http://​nces.ed.gov/​pubs2012/​2012002.pdf]].))+
  
-Children exposed ​to violence are much more likely to experience physical, mental, and emotional problems as a result.((Gayla Margolin and Elana B. Gordis“Children’s exposure to violence in the family ​and community,​” //Current Directions in Psychological Science// 13 (2004): 152-155\\ David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, Heather Turner, and Sherry LHamby, “The victimization ​of children and youth: A comprehensive,​ national survey,” //​Child ​Maltreatment// 10 (2005): 5-25. \\ Naomi Duke, Sandra ​L. Pettingell, Barbara McMorris, and Iris WBorowky“Adolescent violence perpetration:​ association with multiple types of adverse childhood experiences,​” //​Pediatrics//​ 125 (2010): e778-e786.)) Given the level of violence in their neighborhoods,​ for young people to carry guns for self-defense is perhaps understandable.((Alan J. Lizotte, James M. TesorieroTerence PThornberry, and Marvin DKrohn, “Patterns ​of Adolescent Firearms Ownership ​and Use,” //Justice Quarterly//, Vol. 11 (1994), pp. 51-74.)) And the youth most likely to feel the need for defense is the member of a street gang in a violent neighborhood. After he has committed his first violent crimethe evidence shows that he is likely to commit further crimes and more than twice as likely as other criminal youths to commit more violence.((Patricia Brennan, Sarnoff Mednick, and Richard John, “Specialization in Violence: Evidence of a Criminal Subgroup,​” //​Criminology//,​ Vol. 27, No. 3 (1989), pp. 437-453. \\ Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, “Persistence ​and Desistence in Offending,​” (unpublished report, Pittsburgh, Pa: Life History Research Program, University of Pittsburgh, 2010. As cited by the National Institute of Justice, “From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending,​” available at [[http://​www.nij.gov/​topics/​crime/​Pages/​delinquency-to-adult-offending.aspx#​note5]].)) Various studies indicate that violent crime is much more likely to come to the attention of the police and lead to investigation and arrest.((Patricia Brennan, Sarnoff Mednick, and Richard John, “Specialization in Violence: Evidence of Criminal Subgroup,” //​Criminology//​Vol. 27, No. 3 (1989), pp. 437-453. This specialization ​in violence is noted in other countries also. The major longitudinal Danish research study, ​birth cohort of 28,884, is reported in the Brennan study.)) For example, Franklyn W. Dunford and Delbert S. Elliott of the Behavioral Research Institute at Boulder, Colorado, find that young violent criminals are more likely than others to be arrested.((Franklyn W. Dunford and Delbert S. Elliot, “Identifying Career Offenders Using Self-Reported Data,” //Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency//,​ Vol. 21, No. 1 (February 1984), pp. 57-86. Dunford and Alliot also find that very few serious criminals are in fact arrested.)) ​+For most normal children, going to school is their first serious step into the broader communityBut for future delinquentsthis first experience pushes them further down the spiral toward delinquency ​and crimeBecause of their family experiencesthese children already are aggressive ​and hostile.((Dan Olweus, “Stability ​of Aggressive Reaction Patterns in Males: A Review,” //​Child ​Development// 53, (1982): 1431-1446. \\ L.RHuesmanM.M. LefkowitzL.D. Eron, and Leopold OWalder, “Stability ​of Aggression Over Time and Generations,” //Developmental Psychology// 20, (1984): 1120-1134.)) Normalemotionally attached children avoid them -- in effect isolating ​and rejecting them. As a resultthey seek compatible company elsewhere, in a group where they feel they belong.
  
-As a result ​of the low arrest rate for criminalseven the alarming official crime figures do not give policymakers ​true picture of what is happening in high-crime communitiesAccording to Dunford ​and Elliott93 percent ​of those committing between 100 and 200 offenses between 1976 and 1978 were not arrestedwhile 81 percent of the youth responsible for more than 200 offenses during the same two-year period were not arrestedExplains Dunford: "These data suggest that only those at the extreme have any risk of arrest, and even that risk is not highIt appears that the volume ​of crime committed by these youth may be such that arrest is a function of chance aloneThe police mayfiguratively, be stumbling over them. The likelihood of arrest is close to zero until one reports ​in excess ​of 100 total offenses."((Franklyn WDunford ​and Delbert SElliot, “Identifying Career Offenders Using Self-Reported Data,” //Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency//, Vol. 21, No. 1 (February 1984), pp. 57-86.)) Elsewhere in the same study, ​Dunford reports: ​"Of the 242 [career criminals] 86 percent had no record ​of arrestIn other wordsthe overwhelming majority ​of self-reported career offenders were never arrested during a three year period when they were involved ​in very frequent and serious criminal offenses."+As Ronald Simons, professor ​of sociology at Iowa State Universitywrites, "​Ineffective parents produce aggressive first graders who are rejected by their peers and as consequence must form friendships with other deviant youth."​((Ronald Simons ​and Joan F. Robertson“The Impact ​of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281.)) Likewise, Gerald Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center says: "Poor social skills, characterized by aversive or coercive interaction styles, lead directly to rejection by normal peers."​((John M. Gottman and John T. Parkhurst, “A Developmental Theory ​of Friendship and Acquantanceship Processes,” //Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology//​ (1987), cited in Gerald R. Patterson ​and Thomas JDishion, “Contributions ​of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23, no1 (1985): 63-79.)) Pattersonthe leading expert in this areaalso makes the point that peer rejection tends to be linked ​to ineffective parenting: "​Specifically,​ early parent failures contribute to later skills deficits.... Parent skills ​in solving family problems correlate significantly with measures ​of academic skill and peer relations."((Gerald RPatterson ​and Thomas JDishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,” //Criminology// 23no. 1 (1985): 63-79.)) In a study of 1,224 grade school boys, James D. Roff, professor of psychology at Eastern Michigan University, concludes that the boy at highest risk of becoming delinquent ​"was characterized by aggressive behavior in the context ​of peer rejection."​((James D. Roff“Identification ​of Boys at High Risk for Delinquency,​” //​Psychological Reports// 58, no. 2 (1986): 615-618. A three-step screening procedure identified, from a sample of 1,224 grade school boys, a subsample of 60 subjects at increased risk for delinquency. Peer status, childhood aggression, and predelinquent behaviors ​were used in a sequential set of predictive tablesRelative improvement over chance provided a measure of predictive efficiency.)) ​
  
-Given the very high frequency ​of undetected crime by career ​(expertcriminalsthe other dramatic finding from the Cambridge University study of British delinquents((David PFarrington, “Later Adult Life Outcomes ​of Offenders ​and Nonoffenders,” in Children at RiskAssessmentLongitudinal Research ​and Interventioned. Michael Brambring et al. (New YorkWalter de Gruyter, 1989), pp. 220-244.)) may hold for the United States as wellthat 50 percent ​of all crime probably comes from less than 5 percent ​of the delinquents'​ families.+Closed off from the community ​of their peers, future criminals search out companions who feel comfortable with them.  These companions are similarly aggressive-hostile children with whom they feel at ease and by whom they are accepted. The group thus reinforces its own aggressive-hostile ways and gradually rejects the conventional ways of normally attached children.((LeGrande Gardner and Donald J. Shoemaker, “Social Bonding and Delinquency:​ A Comparative Analysis,​” //​Sociological Quarterly// (1989): 481-499.)) Continued disruption at homeparents'​ continued use of harsh discipline,((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas JDishion, “Contributions ​of Families ​and Peers to Delinquency,” //​Criminology//​ 23, no. 1 (1985)63-79.)) and the continued [[effects_of_fatherless_families_on_crime_rates|absence of a father]] all add to the growing hostility of these future delinquents. Association with delinquent peers -- almost all of whom come from similar family and parental backgrounds -- is the next significant development on the path to habitual crime.((Gerald R. Patterson and Thomas J. Dishion“Contributions of Families ​and Peers to Delinquency,” //​Criminology//​ 23, no(1985)63-79. \\ Ronald Simons and Joan F. Robertson“The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers and Coping Style Upon Adolescent Drug Use,” //Family Relations// (1989): 273-281For more details, see the series over 12 studies by Patterson and his colleagues since 1980 elucidating the dynamics and parameters of these behaviors and their consequences ​for the social development of the child. 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​www.heritage.org/​research/​reports/​1995/​03/​bg1026nbsp-the-real-root-causes-of-violent-crime|The Real Root Causes ​of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community]]))
  
-However, adolescent criminals can and frequently do change. For males, getting married and holding a stable job encourage desistence from offending.((Julie Horney, Patrick Tolan, and David Weisburd, “Contextual Influences,​” From //Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy, and Prevention//,​ eds. Rolf Loeber and David P. Farrington, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012: 86-117.))