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effects.of.marriage.on.mental.health [2015/11/11 08:47]
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effects.of.marriage.on.mental.health [2017/05/22 10:24]
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 =====1. Anxiety and Stress===== =====1. Anxiety and Stress=====
  
-Both adults and children in married families suffer less psychological distress than their counterparts in divorced families.((Paul R. Amato, "The Consequence of Divorce for Adults and Children,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 62, (2000): 1269-1287. As cited in Nicholas Zill, “Parenting Stress and Family Structure.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-35-parenting-stress-and-family-structure]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married men have lower levels of stress hormones,​((D. Maestripieri,​ “Between- and Within-Sex Variation in Hormonal Responses to Psychological Stress In a Large Sample of College Students,​” //Stress// 13, no. 5 (2010): 413–442; J. Holt-Lunstad,​ “Is There Something Unique about Marriage? The Relative Impact of Marital Status, Relationship Quality, and Network Social Support on Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Mental Health,” //Annals of Behavioral Medicine// 35, no. 2 (2008): 239-244. As cited in Kathleen Blanchard, “Health & Marriage: Benefits for Men.” Available at [[http://​www.foxnews.com/​health/​2010/​10/​13/​health-marriage-benefits-men/#​ixzz1TDmcdmCc]]. Accessed 26 July 2011.)) and married women experience less psychological distress.((Duncan Cramer, “Living Alone, Marital Status, Gender and Health,” //Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology//​ 3, (1993): 9. +Both adults and children in married families suffer less psychological distress than their counterparts in divorced families.((Paul R. Amato, "The Consequence of Divorce for Adults and Children,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 62, (2000): 1269-1287. As cited in Nicholas Zill, “Parenting Stress and Family Structure.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married men have lower levels of stress hormones,​((D. Maestripieri,​ “Between- and Within-Sex Variation in Hormonal Responses to Psychological Stress In a Large Sample of College Students,​” //Stress// 13, no. 5 (2010): 413–442; J. Holt-Lunstad,​ “Is There Something Unique about Marriage? The Relative Impact of Marital Status, Relationship Quality, and Network Social Support on Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Mental Health,” //Annals of Behavioral Medicine// 35, no. 2 (2008): 239-244. As cited in Kathleen Blanchard, “Health & Marriage: Benefits for Men.” Available at [[http://​www.foxnews.com/​health/​2010/​10/​13/​health-marriage-benefits-men/#​ixzz1TDmcdmCc]]. Accessed 26 July 2011.)) and married women experience less psychological distress.((Duncan Cramer, “Living Alone, Marital Status, Gender and Health,” //Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology//​ 3, (1993): 9. 
 \\ W.R. Avison, J. Ali, and D. Walters, “Family Structure, Stress, and Psychological Distress: A Demonstration of the Impact of Differential Exposure,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 48, (2007): 306.)) Married mothers feel more love and intimacy, less ambivalence,​ and experience less conflict with their husbands than cohabiting and single women do with their partners.((Stacy R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The Mother-Infant Relationship In Single, Cohabiting, and Married Families: A Case for Marriage?​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.)) \\ W.R. Avison, J. Ali, and D. Walters, “Family Structure, Stress, and Psychological Distress: A Demonstration of the Impact of Differential Exposure,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 48, (2007): 306.)) Married mothers feel more love and intimacy, less ambivalence,​ and experience less conflict with their husbands than cohabiting and single women do with their partners.((Stacy R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The Mother-Infant Relationship In Single, Cohabiting, and Married Families: A Case for Marriage?​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.))
  
 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, biological parents and adoptive parents who are married report less parenting stress (48.9) than single mothers (52.1), biological parent/​stepparent families (52.0), or “other” family structure (50.6) such as single fathers. ((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parenting Stress and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09A28.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09A28.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, biological parents and adoptive parents who are married report less parenting stress (48.9) than single mothers (52.1), biological parent/​stepparent families (52.0), or “other” family structure (50.6) such as single fathers. ((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parenting Stress and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-34-36-160.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09A28.pdf|{{ :​parenting_stress_and_family_structure.png?500 |Parenting Stress by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf|{{ :​parenting_stress_and_family_structure.jpg?500 |Parenting Stress by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====2. Depression===== =====2. Depression=====
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 Married people are much more likely to report being happy than cohabiters,​((Steven Stack and J. Ross Eshleman, “Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 60, (1998): 527-536. As cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage” //Research Note// (2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011. \\ Kristen S.  Lee, and Hiroshi Ono, "​Marriage,​ Cohabitation,​ and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries,"​ //Journal of Marriage & Family// 74, no. 5 (2012): 961-962.)) and those who do not cohabit prior to marriage report having happier marriages than those who do cohabit.((Spencer L. James and Brett A. Beattie, "​Reassessing the Link between Women'​s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality,"​ //Social Forces// 91, no. 2 (2012): 651, 652.)) Married people (those in intact marriages and those who have divorced and remarried) most frequently report being proud of their work.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “I Am Proud of the Type of Work I Do.” Available at  Married people are much more likely to report being happy than cohabiters,​((Steven Stack and J. Ross Eshleman, “Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 60, (1998): 527-536. As cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage” //Research Note// (2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011. \\ Kristen S.  Lee, and Hiroshi Ono, "​Marriage,​ Cohabitation,​ and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries,"​ //Journal of Marriage & Family// 74, no. 5 (2012): 961-962.)) and those who do not cohabit prior to marriage report having happier marriages than those who do cohabit.((Spencer L. James and Brett A. Beattie, "​Reassessing the Link between Women'​s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality,"​ //Social Forces// 91, no. 2 (2012): 651, 652.)) Married people (those in intact marriages and those who have divorced and remarried) most frequently report being proud of their work.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “I Am Proud of the Type of Work I Do.” Available at 
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-77-i-am-proud-of-the-type-of-work-i-do-by-marital-status]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married mothers of infants have the most positive attitudes and report forming better home environments than single and cohabiting mothers.((Stacy R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The Mother-Infant Relationship In Single, Cohabiting, and Married Families: A Case for Marriage?​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) ​+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-76-78-174.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married mothers of infants have the most positive attitudes and report forming better home environments than single and cohabiting mothers.((Stacy R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The Mother-Infant Relationship In Single, Cohabiting, and Married Families: A Case for Marriage?​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) ​
  
 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-A larger fraction of those raised in an intact family consider themselves “very happy” than those raised in non-intact families.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “Intergenerational Links to Happiness: Family Structure.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-50-intergenerational-links-to-happiness-family-structure]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=MA09B08|Chart]] Below)+A larger fraction of those raised in an intact family consider themselves “very happy” than those raised in non-intact families.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “Intergenerational Links to Happiness: Family Structure.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-49-51-165.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-49-51-165.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=MA09B08|{{ :intergenerational_links_to_happiness_family_structure.png?500 |Percent Who Are Very Happy}}]]+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-49-51-165.pdf|{{ :very_happy_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percent Who Are Very Happy}}]]
  
 =====5. Drug and Alcohol Use===== =====5. Drug and Alcohol Use=====
  
 Married individuals are more likely to cease using marijuana, due in part to improvements in self-control.((Walter Forrest and Carter Hay, “Life-Course Transitions,​ Self-Control and Desistance From Crime,” //​Criminology and Criminal Justice// 11, no. 5 (2011): 487-513. As cited in //Physorg// article, “The Benefits of Marriage.” Available at [[http://​www.physorg.com/​news/​2011-09-benefits-marriage.html]]. Accessed 2 December 2011.)) Continuously married adults less frequently report that they sometimes drink too much.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “‘Sometimes Drinks too Much Alcohol’ by Marital Status.” Available at  Married individuals are more likely to cease using marijuana, due in part to improvements in self-control.((Walter Forrest and Carter Hay, “Life-Course Transitions,​ Self-Control and Desistance From Crime,” //​Criminology and Criminal Justice// 11, no. 5 (2011): 487-513. As cited in //Physorg// article, “The Benefits of Marriage.” Available at [[http://​www.physorg.com/​news/​2011-09-benefits-marriage.html]]. Accessed 2 December 2011.)) Continuously married adults less frequently report that they sometimes drink too much.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “‘Sometimes Drinks too Much Alcohol’ by Marital Status.” Available at 
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-86-sometimes-drinks-too-much-alcohol-by-marital-status-]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married women have fewer [[effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health|alcohol problems]].((Allan V. Horwitz, Helene R. White, and Sandra Howell-White,​ “Becoming Married and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of a Cohort of Young Adults,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 58, (1996): 895-907.)) African-Americans who are married have lower rates of excessive drinking and drug use.((Mir M. Ali, and Olugbenga Ajilore, "Can Marriage Reduce Risky Health Behavior for African-Americans?"​ //Journal of Family & Economic Issues// 32, no. 2 (2011): 198, 200.))+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-85-87-177.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married women have fewer [[effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health|alcohol problems]].((Allan V. Horwitz, Helene R. White, and Sandra Howell-White,​ “Becoming Married and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of a Cohort of Young Adults,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 58, (1996): 895-907.)) African-Americans who are married have lower rates of excessive drinking and drug use.((Mir M. Ali, and Olugbenga Ajilore, "Can Marriage Reduce Risky Health Behavior for African-Americans?"​ //Journal of Family & Economic Issues// 32, no. 2 (2011): 198, 200.))
  
 Adolescents from intact married families are less likely to use cocaine than those from divorced families.((Lisa A. Cubbins and Daniel H. Klepinger, “Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, no. 3 (2007): 810-830. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) Teenagers from intact families are less likely to begin smoking than those with never-married or divorced single parents.((Cheryl Amey and Stan Albrecht, “Race and Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Family Structure and the Quantity and Quality of Parental Interaction,​” //Journal of Drug Issues// 28, no. 2 (1998): 283-298. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011. \\ Susan L. Brown and Lauren N. Rinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal Of Research On Adolescence//​ 20, no. 2 (2010): 264, 266.)) Adolescents from intact married families are less likely to use cocaine than those from divorced families.((Lisa A. Cubbins and Daniel H. Klepinger, “Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, no. 3 (2007): 810-830. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) Teenagers from intact families are less likely to begin smoking than those with never-married or divorced single parents.((Cheryl Amey and Stan Albrecht, “Race and Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Family Structure and the Quantity and Quality of Parental Interaction,​” //Journal of Drug Issues// 28, no. 2 (1998): 283-298. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011. \\ Susan L. Brown and Lauren N. Rinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal Of Research On Adolescence//​ 20, no. 2 (2010): 264, 266.))
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 ====6.1 Related American Demographics==== ====6.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the General Social Survey (GSS), always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults or unmarried adults to believe that most people would try to take advantage of others.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “’Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others’ by Marital Status.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-89-belief-that-people-try-to-take-advantage-of-others-by-marital-status]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.+According to the General Social Survey (GSS), always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults or unmarried adults to believe that most people would try to take advantage of others.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “’Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others’ by Marital Status.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-88-90-178.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​reasons-to-marry|164 Reasons to Marry]].)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10B43.pdf|Chart]] Below)+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​164-reasons-to-marry/|164 Reasons to Marry]].)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-88-90-178.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10B43.pdf|{{ :​belief_that_people_try_to_take_advantage_of_others_by_marital_status.png?500 |"​Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others"​ by Marital Status}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-88-90-178.pdf|{{ :​belief_that_people_try_to_take_advantage_of_others_by_marital_status.jpg?500 |"​Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others"​ by Marital Status}}]]