Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
effects.of.marriage.on.mental.health [2015/10/12 07:14]
marri
effects.of.marriage.on.mental.health [2017/05/22 10:24]
marri
Line 1: Line 1:
 ==========Effects of Marriage on Mental Health========== ==========Effects of Marriage on Mental Health==========
  
-Married people are least likely to have mental disorders, ((David Williams, et al., “Marital Status and Psychiatric Disorders Among Blacks and Whites,” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 33 (1992): 140-157. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters.” Available at [[http://​www.ampartnership.org/​resourcecenter/​news/​89-why-marriage-matters.html]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.  +Married people are least likely to have mental disorders, ((David Williams, et al., “Marital Status and Psychiatric Disorders Among Blacks and Whites,” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 33(1992): 140-157. As cited in G.T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters.” Available at [[http://​www.ampartnership.org/​resourcecenter/​news/​89-why-marriage-matters.html]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.  
-\\ Benjamin Malzberg, “Marital Status in Relation to the Prevalence of Mental Disease,” //​Psychiatric Quarterly// 10 (1936): 245-261; ​James Coyne, M.J. Rohrbaugh, ​Varda Shoham, ​John S. Sonnega, ​John M. Nicklas, and James A. Cranford, “Prognostic Importance of Marital Quality for Survival of Congestive Heart Failure” //American Journal of Cardiology//​ 88, no. 5 (2001): 526-529. As cited in California Healthy Marriages Coalition, “Healthy Marriages, Mental Health. Research on the Alignment of Marital Outcomes and Mental Health.” Available at [[http://​camarriage.com/​content/​resources/​7b8690b0-784f-46e7-af7d-438a9b064557.pdf]]. Accessed 25 August 2011.)) and have higher levels of emotional and psychological well-being than those who are single, divorced, or cohabiting.((Susan L. Brown, “Relationship Quality Dynamics of Cohabiting Unions,” //Journal of Family Issues// 24, no. 5 (2003): 583-601.+\\ Benjamin Malzberg, “Marital Status in Relation to the Prevalence of Mental Disease,” //​Psychiatric Quarterly// 10(1936): 245-261; ​J. Coyne, M.J. Rohrbaugh, ​V. Shoham, ​J.S. Sonnega, ​J.M. Nicklas, and J.A. Cranford, “Prognostic Importance of Marital Quality for Survival of Congestive Heart Failure” //American Journal of Cardiology//​ 88, no. 5 (2001): 526-529. As cited in California Healthy Marriages Coalition, “Healthy Marriages, Mental Health. Research on the Alignment of Marital Outcomes and Mental Health.” Available at [[http://​camarriage.com/​content/​resources/​7b8690b0-784f-46e7-af7d-438a9b064557.pdf]]. Accessed 25 August 2011.)) and have higher levels of emotional and psychological well-being than those who are single, divorced, or cohabiting.((Susan L. Brown, “Relationship Quality Dynamics of Cohabiting Unions,” //Journal of Family Issues// 24, no. 5 (2003): 583-601.
 \\ Susan L. Brown, “The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-being: Depression among Cohabitors versus Marrieds,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 41, no. 3 (2000): 241-255. \\ Susan L. Brown, “The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-being: Depression among Cohabitors versus Marrieds,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 41, no. 3 (2000): 241-255.
-\\ Beth A. Hahn, “Marital Status and Women’s Health: the Effect of Economic Marital Acquisitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 55, no. 2 (1993): 495-504; Yuanreng Hu and Noreen Goldman, “Mortality Differentials by Marital Status: An International Comparison,​” //​Demography//​ 27, no. 2 (1990): 233-250; ​J.K. Kiecolt-Glaser and T.L. Newton, “Marriage and Health: His and Hers,” //​Psychological Bulletin// 127, no. 4 (2001): 472-503; ​Lee A. Lillard and Constantijn ​W.A. Panis, “Marital Status and Mortality: The Role of Health,” //​Demography//​ 33, no. 3 (1996): 313-327; ​Lee A. Lillard and Linda J. Waite, “’Til Death Do us Part: Marital Disruption and Mortality,​” //The American Journal of Sociology// 100, no. 5 (1995): 1131-1156; ​Kristen ​Marcussen, “Explaining Differences in Mental Health Between Married and Cohabiting Individuals,​” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 68, no. 3 (1999): 239-257; Steven Stack and J. Ross Eshleman, “Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 60 (1998): 527-536; K.A.S. Wickrama, et al., “Marital Quality and Physical Illness: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 1 (1997): 143-155. All as cited in Daniel ​Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage,​” //Research Note// (April 2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011)) Marriage protects against feelings of loneliness.((Randy Page and Galen Cole, “Demographic Predictors of Self-Reported Loneliness in Adults,” //​Psychological Reports// 68 (1991): 939-945. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters,” Available at [[http://​www.focusonthefamily.com/​marriage/​gods_design_for_marriage/​marriage_gods_idea/​why_marriage_matters_for_adults. aspx#​footnoteRef17]],​ accessed 12 April, 2013. \\ Distel, Marijn ​A., Irene Rebollo-Mesa, ​Abdel Abdellaoui, ​Catherine ​A. Derom, ​Gonneke ​Willemsen, ​John T. Cacioppo, ​Dorret ​I. Boomsma, "​Familial Resemblance for Loneliness,"​ //Behavior Genetics// 40, no. 4 (July 2010): 480, 488,490.)) Married mothers enjoy greater psychological well-being and [[effects.of.marriage.on.couples.relationships|greater love and intimacy]] than cohabiting or single mothers.((Stacy ​Rosenkrantz ​Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​mother-infant relationship ​in singlecohabiting, and married familiesa case for marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (March 2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.)) Marriage also has a wide range of benefits for [[effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health|physical health]]. ​+\\ Beth A. Hahn, “Marital Status and Women’s Health: the Effect of Economic Marital Acquisitions,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 55, no. 2 (1993): 495-504; Yuanreng Hu and Noreen Goldman, “Mortality Differentials by Marital Status: An International Comparison,​” //​Demography//​ 27, no. 2 (1990): 233-250; ​Janice ​K. Kiecolt-Glaser and Tamara ​L. Newton, “Marriage and Health: His and Hers,” //​Psychological Bulletin// 127, no. 4 (2001): 472-503; ​L.A. Lillard and C.W.A. Panis, “Marital Status and Mortality: The Role of Health,” //​Demography//​ 33, no. 3 (1996): 313-327; ​L.A. Lillard and L.J. Waite, “’Til Death Do us Part: Marital Disruption and Mortality,​” //The American Journal of Sociology// 100, no. 5 (1995): 1131-1156; ​K. Marcussen, “Explaining Differences in Mental Health Between Married and Cohabiting Individuals,​” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 68, no. 3 (1999): 239-257; Steven Stack and J.R. Eshleman, “Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 60(1998): 527-536; K.A.S. Wickrama, et al., “Marital Quality and Physical Illness: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 59, no. 1 (1997): 143-155. All as cited in D. Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage,​” //Research Note// (2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011)) Marriage protects against feelings of loneliness.((Randy Page and Galen Cole, “Demographic Predictors of Self-Reported Loneliness in Adults,” //​Psychological Reports// 68(1991): 939-945. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters,” Available at [[http://​www.focusonthefamily.com/​marriage/​gods_design_for_marriage/​marriage_gods_idea/​why_marriage_matters_for_adults. aspx#​footnoteRef17]],​ accessed 12 April, 2013. \\ M.A. Distel ​I. ​Rebollo-Mesa, ​A. Abdellaoui, ​C.A. Derom, ​G. Willemsen, ​J.T. Cacioppo, ​D.I. Boomsma, "​Familial Resemblance for Loneliness,"​ //Behavior Genetics// 40, no. 4 (2010): 480, 488,490.)) Married mothers enjoy greater psychological well-being and [[effects.of.marriage.on.couples.relationships|greater love and intimacy]] than cohabiting or single mothers.((Stacy ​R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​Mother-Infant Relationship ​in SingleCohabiting, and Married FamiliesA Case for Marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.)) Marriage also has a wide range of benefits for [[effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health|physical health]]. ​
  
 =====1. Anxiety and Stress===== =====1. Anxiety and Stress=====
  
-Both adults and children in married families suffer less psychological distress than their counterparts in divorced families.((Paul R. Amato, "The Consequence of Divorce for Adults and Children,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family//, ​vol. 62 (2000): 1269-1287. As cited in Nicholas Zill, “Parenting Stress and Family Structure.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-35-parenting-stress-and-family-structure]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married men have lower levels of stress hormones,((Dario Maestripieri,​ “Between- and within-sex variation ​in hormonal responses ​to psychological stress in large sample ​of college students,” //Stress// 13, no. 5 (2010): 413–442; ​Julianne ​Holt-Lunstad,​ “Is There Something Unique about Marriage? The Relative Impact of Marital Status, Relationship Quality, and Network Social Support on Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Mental Health,” //Annals of Behavioral Medicine// 35, no. 2 (2008): 239-244. As cited in Kathleen Blanchard, “Health & Marriage: Benefits for Men.” Available at [[http://​www.foxnews.com/​health/​2010/​10/​13/​health-marriage-benefits-men/#​ixzz1TDmcdmCc]]. Accessed 26 July 2011.)) and married women experience less psychological distress.((Duncan Cramer, “Living Alone, Marital Status, Gender and Health,” //Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology//​ 3 (1993): 9.  +Both adults and children in married families suffer less psychological distress than their counterparts in divorced families.((Paul R. Amato, "The Consequence of Divorce for Adults and Children,"​ //Journal of Marriage and the Family// ​62, (2000): 1269-1287. As cited in Nicholas Zill, “Parenting Stress and Family Structure.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married men have lower levels of stress hormones,((D. Maestripieri,​ “Between- and Within-Sex Variation ​in Hormonal Responses ​to Psychological Stress In Large Sample ​of College Students,” //Stress// 13, no. 5 (2010): 413–442; ​J. Holt-Lunstad,​ “Is There Something Unique about Marriage? The Relative Impact of Marital Status, Relationship Quality, and Network Social Support on Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Mental Health,” //Annals of Behavioral Medicine// 35, no. 2 (2008): 239-244. As cited in Kathleen Blanchard, “Health & Marriage: Benefits for Men.” Available at [[http://​www.foxnews.com/​health/​2010/​10/​13/​health-marriage-benefits-men/#​ixzz1TDmcdmCc]]. Accessed 26 July 2011.)) and married women experience less psychological distress.((Duncan Cramer, “Living Alone, Marital Status, Gender and Health,” //Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology//​ 3(1993): 9.  
-\\ William ​R. Avison, ​Jennifer ​Ali, and David Walters, “Family Structure, Stress, and Psychological Distress: A Demonstration of the Impact of Differential Exposure,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 48 (2007): 306.)) Married mothers feel more love and intimacy ​and feel less ambivalence and experience less conflict with their husbands than do cohabiting and single women with their partners.((Stacy ​Rosenkrantz ​Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​mother-infant relationship in singlecohabiting, and married familiesa case for marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (March 2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.))+\\ W.R. Avison, ​J. Ali, and D. Walters, “Family Structure, Stress, and Psychological Distress: A Demonstration of the Impact of Differential Exposure,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 48(2007): 306.)) Married mothers feel more love and intimacyless ambivalenceand experience less conflict with their husbands than cohabiting and single women do with their partners.((Stacy ​R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​Mother-Infant Relationship In SingleCohabiting, and Married FamiliesA Case for Marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011.))
  
 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, biological parents and adoptive parents who are married report less parenting stress (48.9) than single mothers (52.1), biological parent/​stepparent families (52.0), or “other” family structure (50.6) such as single fathers. ((Nicholas Zill, "​Parenting Stress and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project ​available ​at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09A28.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09A28.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, biological parents and adoptive parents who are married report less parenting stress (48.9) than single mothers (52.1), biological parent/​stepparent families (52.0), or “other” family structure (50.6) such as single fathers. ((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parenting Stress and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available ​at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-{{ :​parenting_stress_and_family_structure.png?600 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-34-36-160.pdf|{{ :​parenting_stress_and_family_structure.jpg?500 |Parenting Stress by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====2. Depression===== =====2. Depression=====
  
-Those who are married report less depression((Susan Brown, “The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-Being: Depression among Cohabitors versus Marrieds,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 41, no. 3 (2000): 247-248.)) than cohabiting couples.((Kristen Marcussen, “Explaining Differences in Mental Health between Married and Cohabiting Individuals,​” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 68, no. 3 (2005): 239-257; Susan L. Brown, ​G.R. Lee, and R.J. Bulanda, “The Significance of Nonmarital Cohabitation:​ Marital Status and Mental Health Benefits among Middle-Aged and Older Adults,” //The Journals of Gerontology//​ 60, no. 1 (2005): S21-S29. Both as cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage,​” //Research Note// (April 2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.)) Married mothers report less depression, more support from their partners, and more stable relationships than cohabiting mothers.((Valarie ​King, “Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 71, no. 4 (November ​2009): 4.)) Adolescents living with married parents are less likely to be depressed than those in stepfamilies or single-parent families (with or without other adults present).((Anne E. Barrett and R. Jay Turner, “Family ​structure ​and mental health: The mediating effects ​of socioeonomic statusfamily process ​and social stress,” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 46, no. 2 (2005): 156-169. As cited in //National Healthy Marriage Resource Center Research Brief// by Jana Staton, “Making the Connection Between Healthy Marriage and Health Outcomes: What the Research Says” (2009): 1-18.))+Those who are married report less depression((Susan ​L. Brown, “The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-Being: Depression among Cohabitors versus Marrieds,​” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 41, no. 3 (2000): 247-248.)) than cohabiting couples.((Kristen Marcussen, “Explaining Differences in Mental Health between Married and Cohabiting Individuals,​” //Social Psychology Quarterly// 68, no. 3 (2005): 239-257; Susan L. Brown, ​Gary R. Lee, and Jennifer ​R. Bulanda, “The Significance of Nonmarital Cohabitation:​ Marital Status and Mental Health Benefits among Middle-Aged and Older Adults,” //The Journals of Gerontology//​ 60, no. 1 (2005): S21-S29. Both as cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage,​” //Research Note// (2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011.)) Married mothers report less depression, more support from their partners, and more stable relationships than cohabiting mothers.((V. King, “Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 71, no. 4 (2009): 4.)) Adolescents living with married parents are less likely to be depressed than those in stepfamilies or single-parent families (with or without other adults present).((Anne E. Barrett and R.J. Turner, “Family ​Structure ​and Mental Health: The Mediating Effects ​of Socioeonomic StatusFamily Process ​and Social Stress,” //Journal of Health and Social Behavior// 46, no. 2 (2005): 156-169. As cited in //National Healthy Marriage Resource Center Research Brief// by Jana Staton, “Making the Connection Between Healthy Marriage and Health Outcomes: What the Research Says” (2009): 1-18.))
  
 =====3. Suicide===== =====3. Suicide=====
  
-Married people are least likely to commit suicide.((Maria Masocco, et al., “Suicide and marital status in Italy,” //​Psychiatric Quarterly// 79, no. 4 (2008): 275-285. As cited in Roger Dobson, “From ​cancer ​to heart diseasethe amazinglife-saving benefits ​of marriage,” Available [[http://​www.dailymail.co.uk/​health/​article-1049134/​From-cancer-heart-disease-amazing-life-saving-benefits-marriage.html]], accessed ​5 April 2013.)) Adolescents in divorced families are more likely to commit suicide.((David M. Cutler, et al., “Explaining the Rise in Youth Suicide,” Working Paper 7713 (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research): 2000. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters,” [[http://​www.focusonthefamily.com/​marriage/​gods_design_for_marriage/​marriage_gods_idea/​why_marriage_matters_for_adults. aspx#​footnoteRef17]], accessed ​12 April, 2013.)) ​+Married people are least likely to commit suicide.((Maria Masocco, et al., “Suicide and marital status in Italy,” //​Psychiatric Quarterly// 79, no. 4 (2008): 275-285. As cited in Roger Dobson, “From ​Cancer ​to Heart DiseaseThe AmazingLife-Saving Benefits ​of Marriage.” Available [[http://​www.dailymail.co.uk/​health/​article-1049134/​From-cancer-heart-disease-amazing-life-saving-benefits-marriage.html]]. Accessed ​5 April 2013.)) Adolescents in divorced families are more likely to commit suicide.((David M. Cutler, et al., “Explaining the Rise in Youth Suicide,” Working Paper 7713 (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research): 2000. As cited in Glenn T. Stanton, “Why Marriage Matters,” [[http://​www.focusonthefamily.com/​marriage/​gods_design_for_marriage/​marriage_gods_idea/​why_marriage_matters_for_adults. aspx#​footnoteRef17]]. Accessed ​12 April, 2013.)) ​
  
 =====4. Happiness===== =====4. Happiness=====
  
-Married people are much more likely to report being happy than cohabiters,​((Steven Stack and J. Ross Eshleman.“Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60 (1998): 527-536. As cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage” Research Note(April 2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011. \\ Lee, Kristen ​Schultz, and Hiroshi Ono, "​Marriage,​ Cohabitation,​ and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries,"​ //Journal of Marriage & Family// 74, no. 5 (October ​2012): 961-962.)) and those who do not cohabit prior to marriage report having happier marriages than those who do cohabit.((James, ​Spencer L.and Brett A. Beattie, "​Reassessing the Link between Women'​s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality,"​ //Social Forces// 91, no. 2 (December ​2012): 651, 652.)) Married people (those in intact marriages and those who have divorced and remarried) most frequently report being proud of their work.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “I Am Proud of the Type of Work I Do.” Available at  +Married people are much more likely to report being happy than cohabiters,​((Steven Stack and J. Ross Eshleman“Marital Status and Happiness: A 17-Nation Study,​” ​//Journal of Marriage and the Family// 60(1998): 527-536. As cited in Daniel Lees, “The Psychological Benefits of Marriage” ​//Research Note// (2007): 1-4. Available at [[http://​www.maxim.org.nz/​files/​pdf/​psychological_benefits_of_marriage.pdf]]. Accessed 27 July 2011. \\ Kristen ​S.  Lee, and Hiroshi Ono, "​Marriage,​ Cohabitation,​ and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries,"​ //Journal of Marriage & Family// 74, no. 5 (2012): 961-962.)) and those who do not cohabit prior to marriage report having happier marriages than those who do cohabit.((Spencer L. James and Brett A. Beattie, "​Reassessing the Link between Women'​s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality,"​ //Social Forces// 91, no. 2 (2012): 651, 652.)) Married people (those in intact marriages and those who have divorced and remarried) most frequently report being proud of their work.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “I Am Proud of the Type of Work I Do.” Available at  
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-77-i-am-proud-of-the-type-of-work-i-do-by-marital-status]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married mothers of infants have the most positive attitudes and report forming better home environments than single and cohabiting mothers.((Stacy ​Rosenkrantz ​Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​mother-infant relationship in singlecohabiting, and married familiesa case for marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (March 2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) ​+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-76-78-174.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married mothers of infants have the most positive attitudes and report forming better home environments than single and cohabiting mothers.((Stacy ​R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​Mother-Infant Relationship In SingleCohabiting, and Married FamiliesA Case for Marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) ​
  
 ====4.1 Related American Demographics==== ====4.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-A larger fraction of those raised in an intact family consider themselves “very happy” than those raised in non-intact families.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “Intergenerational Links to Happiness: Family Structure.” Available at  +A larger fraction of those raised in an intact family consider themselves “very happy” than those raised in non-intact families.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “Intergenerational Links to Happiness: Family Structure.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-49-51-165.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-49-51-165.pdf|Chart]] Below)
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-50-intergenerational-links-to-happiness-family-structure]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) (See [[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=MA09B08|Chart]] Below)+
  
-{{ :intergenerational_links_to_happiness_family_structure.png?600 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-49-51-165.pdf|{{ :very_happy_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Percent Who Are Very Happy}}]]
  
 =====5. Drug and Alcohol Use===== =====5. Drug and Alcohol Use=====
  
-Married individuals are more likely to cease using marijuana, due in part to improvements in self-control.((Walter Forrest and Carter Hay, “Life-course transitionsself-control ​and desistance from crime,” //​Criminology and Criminal Justice// 11, no. 5 (November ​2011): 487-513. As cited in Physorg article, “The Benefits of Marriage.” Available at [[http://​www.physorg.com/​news/​2011-09-benefits-marriage.html]]. Accessed 2 December 2011.)) Continuously married adults less frequently report that they sometimes drink too much.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “‘Sometimes Drinks too Much Alcohol’ by Marital Status.” Available at  +Married individuals are more likely to cease using marijuana, due in part to improvements in self-control.((Walter Forrest and Carter Hay, “Life-Course TransitionsSelf-Control ​and Desistance From Crime,” //​Criminology and Criminal Justice// 11, no. 5 (2011): 487-513. As cited in //Physorg// article, “The Benefits of Marriage.” Available at [[http://​www.physorg.com/​news/​2011-09-benefits-marriage.html]]. Accessed 2 December 2011.)) Continuously married adults less frequently report that they sometimes drink too much.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “‘Sometimes Drinks too Much Alcohol’ by Marital Status.” Available at  
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-86-sometimes-drinks-too-much-alcohol-by-marital-status-]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married women have fewer alcohol problems.((Allan V. Horwitz, Helene ​Raskin ​White, and Sandra Howell-White,​ “Becoming Married and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of a Cohort of Young Adults,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family//58 (November ​1996): 895-907.)) African-Americans who are married have lower rates of excessive drinking and drug use.((Ali, Mir M., and Olugbenga Ajilore, "Can Marriage Reduce Risky Health Behavior for African-Americans?"​ //Journal of Family & Economic Issues// 32, no. 2 (June 2011): 198, 200.))+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-85-87-177.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) Married women have fewer [[effects_of_marriage_on_physical_health|alcohol problems]].((Allan V. Horwitz, Helene ​R. White, and Sandra Howell-White,​ “Becoming Married and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of a Cohort of Young Adults,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 58(1996): 895-907.)) African-Americans who are married have lower rates of excessive drinking and drug use.((Mir M. Ali, and Olugbenga Ajilore, "Can Marriage Reduce Risky Health Behavior for African-Americans?"​ //Journal of Family & Economic Issues// 32, no. 2 (2011): 198, 200.))
  
-Adolescents from intact married families are less likely to use cocaine than those from divorced families.((Lisa A. Cubbins and Daniel H. Klepinger, “Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, no. 3 (August ​2007): 810-830. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) Teenagers from intact families are less likely to begin smoking than those with never-married or divorced single parents.((Chery Amey and Stan Albrecht, “Race and Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Family Structure and the Quantity and Quality of Parental Interaction,​” //Journal of Drug Issues// 28, no. 2 (Spring ​1998): 283-298. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011. \\ Brown, ​Susan L.and Lauren N Rinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal Of Research On Adolescence// ​(Wiley-Blackwell) ​20, no. 2 (June 2010): 264, 266.))+Adolescents from intact married families are less likely to use cocaine than those from divorced families.((Lisa A. Cubbins and Daniel H. Klepinger, “Childhood Family, Ethnicity, and Drug Use over the Life Course,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, no. 3 (2007): 810-830. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.)) Teenagers from intact families are less likely to begin smoking than those with never-married or divorced single parents.((Cheryl ​Amey and Stan Albrecht, “Race and Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Family Structure and the Quantity and Quality of Parental Interaction,​” //Journal of Drug Issues// 28, no. 2 (1998): 283-298. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​24/​keeping-teens-safe-how-the-intact-family-buffers-against-teen-substance-use]]. Accessed 20 July 2011. \\ Susan L. Brown and Lauren NRinelli, "​Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking,"​ //Journal Of Research On Adolescence//​ 20, no. 2 (2010): 264, 266.))
  
 =====6. Community===== =====6. Community=====
  
-Older married couples enjoy more social support than older cohabiters,​((Susan L. Brown, Gary R. Lee, and Jennifer ​Roebuck ​Bulanda, “Cohabitation ​among Older Adults: A National Portrait,​” //The Journals of Gerontology//​ 61B, no. 2 (March 2006): S75)) and married mothers enjoy more social support than cohabiting or single mothers.((Stacy ​Rosenkrantz ​Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​mother-infant relationship in singlecohabiting, and married familiesa case for marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (March 2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) Those in intact marriages less often report believing that most people would try to take advantage of others. Married parents spend more on education and less on alcohol and Tabaco ​as compared to cohabiting parents.((Thomas DeLeire and Ariel Kalil, “How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?” //Journal of Marriage and Family//no. 67 (2005): 286-295. As cited in Institute for American Values, “Why Marriage Matters: 26 Conclusions from the Social Sciences,​” 13. Available at [[http://​www.americanvalues.org/​pdfs/​why_marriage_matters2.pdf]]. Accessed 2 April 2013+Older married couples enjoy more social support than older cohabiters,​((Susan L. Brown, Gary R. Lee, and Jennifer ​R. Bulanda, “Cohabitation ​Among Older Adults: A National Portrait,​” //The Journals of Gerontology//​ 61B, no. 2 (2006): S75)) and married mothers enjoy more social support than cohabiting or single mothers.((Stacy ​R. Aronson and Aletha C. Huston, “The ​Mother-Infant Relationship In SingleCohabiting, and Married FamiliesA Case for Marriage?” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 18, no. 1 (2004): 5-18. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​search?​q=huston%20and%20aronson&​type=findings&​page=1]]. Accessed 1 September 2011)) Those in intact marriages less often report believing that most people would try to take advantage of others. Married parents spend more on education and less on alcohol and tobacco ​as compared to cohabiting parents.((Thomas DeLeire and Ariel Kalil, “How Do Cohabiting Couples with Children Spend Their Money?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// no. 67 (2005): 286-295. As cited in Institute for American Values, “Why Marriage Matters: 26 Conclusions from the Social Sciences,​” 13. Available at [[http://​www.americanvalues.org/​pdfs/​why_marriage_matters2.pdf]]. Accessed 2 April 2013.))
-\\ +
-\\ +
-\\ +
-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​reasons-to-marry|164 Reasons to Marry]].))+
  
 ====6.1 Related American Demographics==== ====6.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the General Social Survey (GSS), always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults or unmarried adults to believe that most people would try to take advantage of others.((Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “’Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others’ by Marital Status.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-89-belief-that-people-try-to-take-advantage-of-others-by-marital-status]]. Accessed 26 August 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10B43.pdf|Chart]] Below)+According to the General Social Survey (GSS), always-intact married adults are less likely than married, previously divorced adults or unmarried adults to believe that most people would try to take advantage of others.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Survey, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “’Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others’ by Marital Status.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-88-90-178.pdf]]. Accessed 26 August 2011
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​164-reasons-to-marry/​|164 Reasons to Marry]].)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-88-90-178.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-{{ :​belief_that_people_try_to_take_advantage_of_others_by_marital_status.png?600 |}}+[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-88-90-178.pdf|{{ :​belief_that_people_try_to_take_advantage_of_others_by_marital_status.jpg?500 |"​Belief That People Try to Take Advantage of Others"​ by Marital Status}}]]