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effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education [2017/05/18 08:34]
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effects.of.marriage.on.children.s.education [2017/05/18 09:43] (current)
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 //(See [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Education]] and [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|Effects of Family Structure on Children'​s Education]])//​ //(See [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Education]] and [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|Effects of Family Structure on Children'​s Education]])//​
  
-Children raised in intact married families tend to earn higher grades than those in [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|non-intact families]].((Patrick Fagan, Anne Dougherty, and Miriam McElvain, "164 Reasons to Marry,"​ Marriage and Religion Research Institute. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF12A85.pdf]])) For example, kindergarten children from married families have higher reading scores than those from cohabiting families.((Julie Artis, “Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being Among Kindergarten Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 69, no. 1 (2007): 227-232.)) Parents in always-intact married families are also more likely to help their children do their homework than are parents in stepfamilies or single-parent families,​((Frank F. Furstenberg and Christine Winquist Nord, “Parenting Apart: Patterns of Child Rearing After Marital Disruption,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 47, (1985): 893-904. As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (1998): 150.)) and fathers in always-intact married families are more involved in their children’s homework than are stepfathers.((Alan C. Acock and David H. Demo, //Family Diversity and Well-Being//​ (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994). As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (1998): 150.)) Compared with children in stable married families, students experiencing [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|parental divorce]] have lower academic expectations and test scores.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-Being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 472–488. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​35/​family-structure-and-childrens-education]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.))+Children raised in intact married families tend to earn higher grades than those in [[effects_of_family_structure_on_children_s_education|non-intact families]].((Patrick Fagan, Anne Dougherty, and Miriam McElvain, "164 Reasons to Marry,"​ Marriage and Religion Research Institute. Available at [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​164-reasons-to-marry/]])) For example, kindergarten children from married families have higher reading scores than those from cohabiting families.((Julie Artis, “Maternal Cohabitation and Child Well-Being Among Kindergarten Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 69, no. 1 (2007): 227-232.)) Parents in always-intact married families are also more likely to help their children do their homework than are parents in stepfamilies or single-parent families,​((Frank F. Furstenberg and Christine Winquist Nord, “Parenting Apart: Patterns of Child Rearing After Marital Disruption,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 47, (1985): 893-904. As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (1998): 150.)) and fathers in always-intact married families are more involved in their children’s homework than are stepfathers.((Alan C. Acock and David H. Demo, //Family Diversity and Well-Being//​ (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994). As cited in Sandra J. Balli, David H. Demo, John F. Wedman, “Family Involvement with Children'​s Homework: An Intervention in the Middle Grades,” //Family Relations// 47, no. 2 (1998): 150.)) Compared with children in stable married families, students experiencing [[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|parental divorce]] have lower academic expectations and test scores.((Youngmin Sun and Yuanzhang Li, “Children’s Well-Being During Parents’ Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 472–488. As cited by The Heritage Foundation: Family Facts. Available at [[http://​www.familyfacts.org/​briefs/​35/​family-structure-and-childrens-education]]. Accessed 20 July 2011.))
  
 ====1.1 Related American Demographics==== ====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth shows that students most likely to receive A’s in school are those who grew up in an intact married family. About 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Likely to Receive Mostly A's’ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-100-students-who-receive-mostly-as]]. Accessed 13 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf|Chart]])+The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth shows that students most likely to receive A’s in school are those who grew up in an intact married family. About 28 percent of students who grew up in an intact married family received mostly A’s, followed by students from intact cohabiting families (21 percent), single divorced parent families (18 percent), married stepfamilies (15 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (11 percent), and always single parent families (9 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, “‘Likely to Receive Mostly A's’ by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-100.pdf]]. Accessed 13 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-100.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF11A16.pdf|{{ :received_mostly_as_by_fs.png?500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-100.pdf|{{ :received_mostly_as.jpg?500 |"​Students Who Received Mostly A's at School"​}}]]
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, students who live with their married biological parents carry the highest average combined GPA, or grade point average, for English and math (2.9). Those whose parents never married or who live with cohabiting adults, only one of whom is a natural parent, have the lowest (2.5). Slightly above that group are students living with stepparents,​ divorced parents, or both unmarried biological parents (2.6). ((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," The Heritage Foundation, (2006) chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf|Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, students who live with their married biological parents carry the highest average combined GPA, or grade point average, for English and math (2.9). Those whose parents never married or who live with cohabiting adults, only one of whom is a natural parent, have the lowest (2.5). Slightly above that group are students living with stepparents,​ divorced parents, or both unmarried biological parents (2.6). ((Patrick Fagan, Kirk A. Johnson and Jonathan Butcher, "A Portrait of Family and Religion in America: Key Outcomes for the Common Good," The Heritage Foundation, (2006) chart 10, based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and School Performance of U.S. High School Students,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-1-3-149.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08C37.pdf|{{ :family_structure_and_school_performance_of_u.s._high_school_students_2.png?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-1-3-149.pdf|{{ :average_in_english_and_math_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Combined Average in English and Math}}]]
  
 =====2. Level of Attainment===== =====2. Level of Attainment=====
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 ====2.1 Related American Demographics==== ====2.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 91 percent of youth raised by their married biological parents received a high school diploma. They are followed by those in married stepfamilies (80 percent), single divorced parent families (76 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (68 percent), always single parent families (63 percent), and biological cohabiting parent families (60 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​“Ever Received a High School Degree” by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10K10.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10K10.pdf| Chart]])+According to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 91 percent of youth raised by their married biological parents received a high school diploma. They are followed by those in married stepfamilies (80 percent), single divorced parent families (76 percent), cohabiting stepfamilies (68 percent), always single parent families (63 percent), and biological cohabiting parent families (60 percent).((Patrick F. Fagan and Scott Talkington, "​“Ever Received a High School Degree” by Structure of Family of Origin and by Current Religious Attendance,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-99.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-99.pdf| Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10K10.pdf|{{ :ever_recieved_a_high_school_degree_by_structure_of_family_origin.png?500 |"Ever Received a High School Degree"​}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-99.pdf|{{ :received_high_school_degree_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"Ever Received a High School Degree"​}}]]
  
-Always-married mothers are significantly more likely to have received a bachelor'​s degree than their counterparts. The National Survey of Family Growth shows that 41.7 percent of mothers aged 35-44 in always-intact marriages have earned a bachelor’s degree, followed by mothers in married stepfamilies (20.2 percent), those who are divorced (18.1 percent), those in intact cohabiting relationships (11.1 percent), those who have always been single (8.2 percent), and those in cohabiting stepfamilies (6.8 percent).((These charts draw on data collected by the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 6 (2002). The sample consists of women between the ages of 35 and 44 and numbers 2,479. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and D. Paul Sullins, “‘Mothers (aged 35-44) Who Have Attained a Bachelor’s Degree’ by Religious Attendance and Present Family Structure.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-92-women-attaining-a-bachelors-degree-by-religious-attendance-and-present-family-structure]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10D33.pdf|Chart]])+Always-married mothers are significantly more likely to have received a bachelor'​s degree than their counterparts. The National Survey of Family Growth shows that 41.7 percent of mothers aged 35-44 in always-intact marriages have earned a bachelor’s degree, followed by mothers in married stepfamilies (20.2 percent), those who are divorced (18.1 percent), those in intact cohabiting relationships (11.1 percent), those who have always been single (8.2 percent), and those in cohabiting stepfamilies (6.8 percent).((These charts draw on data collected by the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 6 (2002). The sample consists of women between the ages of 35 and 44 and numbers 2,479. \\ Patrick F. Fagan and D. Paul Sullins, “‘Mothers (aged 35-44) Who Have Attained a Bachelor’s Degree’ by Religious Attendance and Present Family Structure.” Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-92.pdf]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-92.pdf|Chart]])
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF10D33.pdf|{{ :mothers_who_have_a_bachelor_s_by_fs.png?500 |"​Mothers Who Have Attained a Bachelor'​s Degree"​}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-92.pdf|{{ :mothers_received_bachelors_degree_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |"​Mothers Who Have Attained a Bachelor'​s Degree"​}}]]
  
 =====3. Engagement===== =====3. Engagement=====
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 ====3.1 Related American Demographics==== ====3.1 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II, 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at [[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-20-family-structure-and-expulsion-or-suspension-from-school]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.))+According to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II, 20 percent of students in Grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have ever been suspended or expelled from school. By contrast, more than 50 percent of adolescents who live with a single, never-married parent have ever been suspended or expelled. In between are those who live with two biological cohabiting parents (34.3 percent), those living with a step-parent (35.9 percent), those whose parents are divorced (37 percent), and those who live with one biological cohabiting parent (40.8 percent).((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick F. Fagan, “Family Structure and Expulsion or Suspension from School.” Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf]]. Accessed 22 September 2011.))
  
-[[http://www.frc.org/mappingamerica/mapping-america-20-family-structure-and-expulsion-or-suspension-from-school|{{ :family_structure_and_expulsion_or_suspension_from_school.png?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-19-21-155.pdf|{{ :adolescents_suspended_or_expelled_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Expelled or Suspended from School by Family Structure}}]]
  
-Based on the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.The respective rates of grade repetition found in the survey were 6.5 percent for those living with both parents, 19.9 percent for those living with mother only, 21.8 percent for those living with a parent and stepparent, and 21.9 percent for those living in other family configurations.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​+Based on the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents are only one third as likely to have ever repeated a grade in school as those who living with their mother only, with one biological parent and a stepparent, or in other family configurations,​ such as with their father only or with foster parents.The respective rates of grade repetition found in the survey were 6.5 percent for those living with both parents, 19.9 percent for those living with mother only, 21.8 percent for those living with a parent and stepparent, and 21.9 percent for those living in other family configurations.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Repeating a Grade and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-40-42-162.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09C07.pdf|{{ :repeating_a_grade_and_family_structure.png?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-40-42-162.pdf|{{ :children_who_repeated_a_grade_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Repeating a Grade by Family Structure}}]]
  
 Children who live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are less likely to have parents who have concerns about their children’s achievement.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in Children who live with both biological parents or with two adoptive parents are less likely to have parents who have concerns about their children’s achievement.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in
 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these
 children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range
-represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parental Concerns about Children'​s Achievement by Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09I09.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09I09.pdf|Chart]] Below)+represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Parental Concerns about Children'​s Achievement by Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-67-69-171.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-67-69-171.pdf|Chart]] Below)
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09I09.pdf|{{ :parental_concerns_about_children_s_achievement_by_family_structure.png?500 |Parental Concerns About Children'​s Achievement by Family Structure}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-67-69-171.pdf|{{ :parental_concern_by_family_structure.jpg?500 |Parental Concerns About Children'​s Achievement by Family Structure}}]]
  
 =====4. Long-term Impact===== =====4. Long-term Impact=====