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effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills [2015/10/05 10:19]
marri [1. Social Skills]
effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.social.skills [2017/05/16 12:33] (current)
marri [1.1 Related American Demographics]
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 ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Social Skills========== ==========Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Social Skills==========
-//Research Synthesis Paper//: [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|The Effects of Divorce on Children]] 
  
-Also see: "​[[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Behavior]]"​ 
 =====1. Social Skills===== =====1. Social Skills=====
 +(//See [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Behavior]]//​)
  
-Gerald Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center concluded that “[p]oor social skills, characterized by aversive or coercive interaction styles, lead directly to rejection by normal peers.”((John M. Gottman and John T. Parkhurst, “A Developmental Theory of Friendship and Acquaintanceship Processes,​” //Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology//​ (1978). As cited in Gerald ​R. Patterson and Thomas ​J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23 (1985): 63–79.)) Fear of such peer rejection is twice as likely among adolescents of divorced parents.((Dorothy ​Tysse Breen and Margaret Crosbie-Burnett,​ “Moral Dilemmas of Early Adolescents of Divorced and Intact Families: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis,​” //Journal of Early Adolescence//​ 13 (1993) 168-182.)) Their social relations are likely to be damaged in several ways((Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15 (2001): 355-375.)) and characterized by more problems relating to peers,​((David H. Demo and Alan C. Acock, “The Impact of Divorce on Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50 (1988): 619-48. \\  Hyun Sik Kima, "​Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development,"​ //American Sociological Review//, ​vol. 76 no. 3(2011): 506-507.)) fewer childhood friends, and a greater tendency to complain about lack of peer support.((Sylvie Drapeau and Camil Bouchard, “Support ​networks ​and adjustment among 6 to 11 year-olds ​from maritally disrupted ​and intact families,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 19 (1993): 75-97. Daughters of divorced parents, in a University of Michigan study, had significantly greater difficulty in having and keeping friends and were more frequently depressed while at college. See Kristen M. McCabe, “Sex Differences in the Long-term Effects of Divorce on Children: Depression and Heterosexual Relationship Difficulties in the Young Adult Years,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 27 (1997): 123-134. \\ Green, ​Julii M., and Alan R. King, "​Domestic Violence and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Best Friendship Qualities Among College Students,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 50, no. 2 (February 2009): 100, 110, 113.)) Kent State University faculty members conducted a major national study on the effects of divorce in 1987. The study found that, compared to children from intact families, children of divorced parents did worse when rated by both parents and teachers on peer relationships,​ hostility towards adults, anxiety, withdrawal, inattention,​ and aggression.((John Guidubaldi, ​Joseph ​D. Perry and Bonnie ​K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long-term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment,​” //Applied Social Psychology Annual// 7 (1987): 202-237.)) A 2015 study published in the //Journal of Family Psychology//​ reiterated these findings.((Weaver, ​Jennifer M., and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and moderation ​of divorce effects ​on children’s behavior problems," //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43.)) According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents score higher on the social development scale (50.8) than children who live within other family configurations. ((Nicholas Zill, "​Children’s Positive Social Development and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project available at [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF09G09.pdf]]))(See [[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF09G09.pdf| Chart]] Below)+Gerald Patterson of the Oregon Social Learning Center concluded that “[p]oor social skills, characterized by aversive or coercive interaction styles, lead directly to rejection by normal peers.”((J.M. Gottman and J.T. Parkhurst, “A Developmental Theory of Friendship and Acquaintanceship Processes,​” //Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology//​ (1978). As cited in G.R. Patterson and T.J. Dishion, “Contributions of Families and Peers to Delinquency,​” //​Criminology//​ 23(1985): 63–79.)) Fear of such peer rejection is twice as likely among adolescents of divorced parents.((Dorothy ​T. Breen and Margaret Crosbie-Burnett,​ “Moral Dilemmas of Early Adolescents of Divorced and Intact Families: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis,​” //Journal of Early Adolescence//​ 13(1993) 168-182.)) Their social relations are likely to be damaged in several ways((Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 15(2001): 355-375.)) and characterized by more problems relating to peers,​((David H. Demo and Alan C. Acock, “The Impact of Divorce on Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50(1988): 619-48. \\  Hyun S. Kima, "​Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development,"​ //American Sociological Review// ​76, no. 3 (2011): 506-507.)) fewer childhood friends, and a greater tendency to complain about lack of peer support.((Sylvie Drapeau and Camil Bouchard, “Support ​Networks ​and Adjustment Among 6 to 11 year-olds ​From Maritally Disrupted ​and Intact Families,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 19(1993): 75-97. Daughters of divorced parents, in a University of Michigan study, had significantly greater difficulty in having and keeping friends and were more frequently depressed while at college. See Kristen M. McCabe, “Sex Differences in the Long-term Effects of Divorce on Children: Depression and Heterosexual Relationship Difficulties in the Young Adult Years,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 27(1997): 123-134. \\ Julii M. Green, and Alan R. King, "​Domestic Violence and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Best Friendship Qualities Among College Students,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 50, no. 2 (February 2009): 100, 110, 113.)) Kent State University faculty members conducted a major national study on the effects of divorce in 1987. The study found that, compared to children from intact families, children of divorced parents did worse when rated by both parents and teachers on peer relationships,​ hostility towards adults, anxiety, withdrawal, inattention,​ and aggression.((J. Guidubaldi, ​J.D. Perry and B.K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long-term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment,​” //Applied Social Psychology Annual// 7(1987): 202-237.)) A 2015 study published in the //Journal of Family Psychology//​ reiterated these findings.((Jennifer M. Weaver, and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and Moderation ​of Divorce Effects ​on Children’s Behavior Problems," //Journal of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43.)) 
  
-{{ :​children_s_positive_social_development_and_family_structure_chart_6.png?500 |}}+====1.1 Related American Demographics====
  
 +According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents score higher on the social development scale (50.8) than children who live within other family configurations.((This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide. \\ Nicholas Zill, "​Children’s Positive Social Development and Family Structure,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-58-60-168.pdf]])) (See [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-58-60-168.pdf| Chart]] Below)
 +
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-58-60-168.pdf|{{ :​childrens_positive_social_development_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 |Children'​s Positive Social Development by Family Structure}}]]
 =====2. Psychological Outcomes===== =====2. Psychological Outcomes=====
  
-A variety of psychological outcomes are associated with parental divorce that lead to vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others.((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67 (2005): 1286.)) According to one study, child antisocial behavior decreases after the dissolution of marriages in highly dysfunctional families,​((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67 (2005): 1286.)) and “the higher the level of family dysfunction prior to divorce, the greater the reduction in child antisocial behavior after the divorce.”((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67 (2005): 1297.)) Nevertheless,​ children whose parents divorce will exhibit more anxiety and depression and antisocial behavior than children from intact families.((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67 (2005): 1286.)) ​+A variety of psychological outcomes are associated with parental divorce that lead to vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others.((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67(2005): 1286.)) According to one study, child antisocial behavior decreases after the dissolution of marriages in highly dysfunctional families,​((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67(2005): 1286.)) and “the higher the level of family dysfunction prior to divorce, the greater the reduction in child antisocial behavior after the divorce.”((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67(2005): 1297.)) Nevertheless,​ children whose parents divorce will exhibit more anxiety and depression and antisocial behavior than children from intact families.((Lisa Strohschein,​ “Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67(2005): 1286.)) ​
  
-Children who experience divorce at any age will continue to be affected their whole lives, tending to “exhibit higher malaise scores at age 33 than their contemporaries whose parents remained married.”((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63 (2001): 452.)) ​+Children who experience divorce at any age will continue to be [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|affected their whole live]]s, tending to “exhibit higher malaise scores at age 33 than their contemporaries whose parents remained married.”((Frank F. Furstenberg and Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63(2001): 452.)) ​
  
 =====3. Behavioral Problems===== =====3. Behavioral Problems=====
 +(//See [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Behavior]]//​)
  
-Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased behavioral problems,​((Donna ​Ruane Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61 (1999): 626. \\ Weaver, ​Jennifer M., and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and moderation ​of divorce effects ​on children’s behavior problems," //Journal Of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43, 45.)) and the marital conflict that accompanies parents’ divorce places the child’s social competence at risk. Studies indicate that divorce contributes to an increased risk for a wide facet of undesirable behaviors, including an inability to handle conflict, promiscuity,​ difficulty in school, increased crime rates, increased drug and alcohol use, and increased rates of suicide. ​+Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased ​[[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|behavioral problems]],​((Donna ​R. Morrison and Mary Jo Coiro, “Parental Conflict and Marital Disruption: Do Children Benefit When High-Conflict Marriages Are Dissolved?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 61(1999): 626. \\ Jennifer M. Weaver, and Thomas J. Schofield, "​Mediation and Moderation ​of Divorce Effects ​on Children’s Behavior Problems," //Journal Of Family Psychology//​ 29, no. 1 (2015): 39, 43, 45
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +\\ 
 +This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/​|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].)) and the marital conflict that accompanies parents’ divorce places the child’s social competence at risk. Studies indicate that divorce contributes to an increased risk for a wide facet of undesirable behaviors, including an inability to handle conflict, ​[[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity|promiscuity]][[effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education|difficulty in school]][[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|increased crime rates]], increased drug and alcohol use, and increased rates of suicide. ​