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effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity [2015/11/04 13:14]
marri2
effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity [2017/05/16 11:06]
marri [1.3 Related American Demographics]
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 //(See [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Future Relationships]])//​ //(See [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|Effects of Divorce on Children'​s Future Relationships]])//​
  
-When parents divorce, their children’s attitudes about sexual behavior change. Children’s approval of premarital sex, [[cohabitation.and.future.marital.stability|cohabitation]],​ and [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|divorce]] rises dramatically,​ while their endorsement of [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|marriage and childbearing falls]].((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81.  +When parents divorce, their children’s attitudes about sexual behavior change. Children’s approval of premarital sex, [[cohabitation.and.future.marital.stability|cohabitation]],​ and [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|divorce]] rises dramatically,​ while their endorsement of [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|marriage and childbearing falls]].((William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81.  
-\\ W.H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35, (2001): 125.)) Children from divorced families are also more likely to believe that marriage is not important prior to having children and are more likely to have a child out of wedlock. This holds true even after controlling for socioeconomic status.((W.H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35, (2001): 125.)) Furthermore,​ sexual permissiveness on the part of divorced parents significantly increases permissive attitudes and behavior in both their sons and daughters.((L.B. Whitbeck, ​R.L. Simons, and M.Y. Kao, “The Effects of Divorced Mother’s Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 56, (1994): 615-621. As cited in Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives,​ Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, //To Have and To Hold: Strategies to Strengthen Marriage and Relationships//​ (Canberra, Australia: Parliament of Australia, 1998), 36.))+\\ William ​H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35, (2001): 125.)) Children from divorced families are also more likely to believe that marriage is not important prior to having children and are more likely to have a child out of wedlock. This holds true even after controlling for socioeconomic status.((William ​H. Jeynes, “The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children’s Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 35, (2001): 125.)) Furthermore,​ sexual permissiveness on the part of divorced parents significantly increases permissive attitudes and behavior in both their sons and daughters.((Les B. Whitbeck, ​Ronald ​L. Simons, and Meei-Ying ​Kao, “The Effects of Divorced Mother’s Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 56, (1994): 615-621. As cited in Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, House of Representatives,​ Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, //To Have and To Hold: Strategies to Strengthen Marriage and Relationships//​ (Canberra, Australia: Parliament of Australia, 1998), 36.))
  
-Children from divorced families have an earlier sexual debut than children from intact families.((F.H. Jónsson, ​U. Njardvik, ​G. Ólafsdóttir,​ and S.J. Grétarsson,​ “Parental Divorce: Long-term Effects on Mental Health, Family Relations, and Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //​Scandinavian Journal of Psychology//​ 41, (2000): 103.)) This also holds true for children raised without a biological father present.((J.K. Mendle, ​P. Harden, ​E. Turkheimer, ​C.A. Van Hulle, ​B.M. D’Onofrio, ​J. Brooks-Gunn, ​J.L. Rodgers, ​R.E. Emery, and B.B. Lahey, "​Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse,"​ //Child Development//​ 80, no. 5 (2009): 1463-1464.))+Children from divorced families have an earlier sexual debut than children from intact families.((Fridrik ​H. Jónsson, ​Urdur Njardvik, ​Gudlaug ​Ólafsdóttir,​ and Sigurdur ​J. Grétarsson,​ “Parental Divorce: Long-term Effects on Mental Health, Family Relations, and Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //​Scandinavian Journal of Psychology//​ 41, (2000): 103.)) This also holds true for children raised without a biological father present.((Jane K. Mendle, ​Paige Harden, ​Eric Turkheimer, ​Carole ​A. Van Hulle, ​Brian M. D’Onofrio, ​Jeanne ​Brooks-Gunn, ​Joseph ​L. Rodgers, ​Robert ​E. Emery, and Benjamin ​B. Lahey, "​Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse,"​ //Child Development//​ 80, no. 5 (2009): 1463-1464.))
  
 ====1.1 Girls==== ====1.1 Girls====
  
-American((E. Mavis Hetherington, ​M. Cox, and R. Cox, “Long-term Effects of Divorce and Remarriage on the Adjustment of Children,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, (1985): 518-530.  +American((E. Mavis Hetherington, ​Martha ​Cox, and Roger Cox, “Long-term Effects of Divorce and Remarriage on the Adjustment of Children,​” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 24, (1985): 518-530.  
-\\ Kinnaird and Gerrard (1986). As cited in D. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 165.)) and British((K.E. Kiernan, “The Impact of Family Disruptions in Childhood on Transitions Made in Young Adult Life,” //​Population Studies// 46, (1992): 213-234.)) studies repeatedly show that daughters of divorced parents will be more likely to approve of premarital sexual intercourse((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolution on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81.)) and teen sexual activity,((A. Thornton, and D. Camburn, “The Influence of the Family on Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //​Demography//​ 24, (1987): 323-340.)) and to engage in early sexual intercourse outside of marriage; similar results are shown among fatherless households in general.((A. Thornton and D. Camburn, “The Influence of the Family on Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //​Demography//​ 24, (1987): 329-337; these findings hold regardless of ethnic background.  +\\ Kinnaird and Gerrard (1986). As cited in D. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 165.)) and British((Kathleen ​E. Kiernan, “The Impact of Family Disruptions in Childhood on Transitions Made in Young Adult Life,” //​Population Studies// 46, (1992): 213-234.)) studies repeatedly show that daughters of divorced parents will be more likely to approve of premarital sexual intercourse((William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolution on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81.)) and teen sexual activity,((Arland ​Thornton, and Donald ​Camburn, “The Influence of the Family on Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //​Demography//​ 24, (1987): 323-340.)) and to engage in early sexual intercourse outside of marriage; similar results are shown among fatherless households in general.((Arland ​Thornton and Donald ​Camburn, “The Influence of the Family on Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behavior,​” //​Demography//​ 24, (1987): 329-337; these findings hold regardless of ethnic background.  
-\\ C.A. Smith, “Factors Associated with Early Sexual Activity Among Urban Adolescents,​” //Social Work// 42, (1997): 334-346.  +\\ Carolyn ​A. Smith, “Factors Associated with Early Sexual Activity Among Urban Adolescents,​” //Social Work// 42, (1997): 334-346.  
-\\ K.E. Kiernan and J. Hobcraft, “Parental Divorce during Childhood: Age at First Intercourse,​ Partnership and Parenthood,​” //​Population Studies// 51, (1997): 41-55.  +\\ Kathleen ​E. Kiernan and John Hobcraft, “Parental Divorce during Childhood: Age at First Intercourse,​ Partnership and Parenthood,​” //​Population Studies// 51, (1997): 41-55.  
-\\ F.F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and J.O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 179. \\ R.M. Ryan, "​Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach,"​ //​Developmental Psychology//​ 51, no. 2 (February 2015): 211, 219.)) The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reports that African-American girls are 42 percent less likely to have sexual intercourse before age 18 if their biological father is present at home.((R. Day, “The Transition to First Intercourse among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 54, (1992): 749-762.)) By contrast, the presence of a stepfather increases by 72 percent the likelihood of sexual intercourse before age 18 for Latino girls.((R. Day, “The Transition to First Intercourse among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 54, (1992): 749-762.))+\\ Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien ​O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 179. \\ Rebecca ​M. Ryan, "​Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach,"​ //​Developmental Psychology//​ 51, no. 2 (February 2015): 211, 219.)) The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth reports that African-American girls are 42 percent less likely to have sexual intercourse before age 18 if their biological father is present at home.((R. Day, “The Transition to First Intercourse among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 54, (1992): 749-762.)) By contrast, the presence of a stepfather increases by 72 percent the likelihood of sexual intercourse before age 18 for Latino girls.((R. Day, “The Transition to First Intercourse among Racially and Culturally Diverse Youth,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 54, (1992): 749-762.))
  
-In addition to an increased likelihood of being sexually active, girls from divorced families are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, to have more frequent sexual intercourse,​ and to have more sexual partners.((A. Biglan, C.W. Metzler, R. Wirt, D. Ary, J. Noell, L. Ochs, C. French and D. Hood, “Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents,​” //Journal of Behavioral Medicine// 13, (1990): 245–261; J.O. G. Billy, K.L. Brewster and W.R. Grady, “Contextual Effects of The Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Women,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 56, (1994): 387–404; ​B.J. Ellis, ​J.E. Bates, ​K.A. Dodge, ​D.M. Fergusson, L. John Horwood, ​G.S. Pettit, and L. Woodward, “Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?​” //Child Development//​ 74, (2003): 801–821; ​R.L. Flewelling and K.E. Bauman, “Family Structure as a Predictor of Initial Substance Use and Sexual Intercourse in Early Adolescence,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 52, (1990): 171–181; L.L. Meschke, J.M. Zweig, B.L. Barber, and J.S. Eccles, “Demographic,​ Biological, Social, and Psychological Correlates of The Timing of First Intercourse,​” //Journal of Research on Adolescence//​ 10, (2000): 315–338; ​R.L. Simons and Associates, //​Understanding Differences Between Divorced and Intact Families// (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996). As cited in J.K. McGuire and B.L. Barber, “A Person-Centered Approach to the Multifaceted Nature of Young Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //Journal of Sex Research// 47, no. 4 (2010): 308, 310.)) In a study comparing girls from New Zealand and the United States, researchers found that the earlier a father leaves the home, the higher his daughter’s risk of early sexual activity and [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|teenage pregnancy]]. In the United States, girls whose fathers had left before their daughters were five years old were eight times more likely to become pregnant while adolescents than were girls whose fathers remained in the home.((B.J. Ellis, ​J.E. Bates, ​K.A. Dodge, ​D.M. Fergusson, L. John Horwood, ​G.S. Pettit, and L. Woodward, “Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?​” //Child Development//​ 74, no. 3 (2003): 810-811.))+In addition to an increased likelihood of being sexually active, girls from divorced families are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, to have more frequent sexual intercourse,​ and to have more sexual partners.((A. Biglan, C.W. Metzler, R. Wirt, D. Ary, J. Noell, L. Ochs, C. French and D. Hood, “Social and Behavioral Factors Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents,​” //Journal of Behavioral Medicine// 13, (1990): 245–261; J.O. G. Billy, K.L. Brewster and W.R. Grady, “Contextual Effects of The Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Women,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 56, (1994): 387–404; ​Bruce J. Ellis, ​John E. Bates, ​Kenneth ​A. Dodge, ​David M. Fergusson, L. John Horwood, ​Gregory ​S. Pettit, and Lianne ​Woodward, “Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?​” //Child Development//​ 74, (2003): 801–821; ​Robert ​L. Flewelling and Karl E. Bauman, “Family Structure as a Predictor of Initial Substance Use and Sexual Intercourse in Early Adolescence,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 52, (1990): 171–181; L.L. Meschke, J.M. Zweig, B.L. Barber, and J.S. Eccles, “Demographic,​ Biological, Social, and Psychological Correlates of The Timing of First Intercourse,​” //Journal of Research on Adolescence//​ 10, (2000): 315–338; ​Ronald ​L. Simons and Associates, //​Understanding Differences Between Divorced and Intact Families// (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996). As cited in Jenifer ​K. McGuire and Bonnie ​L. Barber, “A Person-Centered Approach to the Multifaceted Nature of Young Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //Journal of Sex Research// 47, no. 4 (2010): 308, 310.)) In a study comparing girls from New Zealand and the United States, researchers found that the earlier a father leaves the home, the higher his daughter’s risk of early sexual activity and [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|teenage pregnancy]]. In the United States, girls whose fathers had left before their daughters were five years old were eight times more likely to become pregnant while adolescents than were girls whose fathers remained in the home.((Bruce J. Ellis, ​John E. Bates, ​Kenneth ​A. Dodge, ​David M. Fergusson, L. John Horwood, ​Gregory ​S. Pettit, and Lianne ​Woodward, “Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?​” //Child Development//​ 74, no. 3 (2003): 810-811.))
  
 ====1.2 Boys==== ====1.2 Boys====
  
-For sons, parental divorce and father absence is correlated with adolescent sexual intercourse,​ earlier sexual debut,((F.F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and J.O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190. \\ J. Mendle, K.P. Harden, E. Turkheimer, C.A. Van Hulle, B.M. D’Onofrio,​ J. Brooks-Gunn,​ J.L. Rodgers, R.E. Emery, and B.B. Lahey, "​Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse,"​ //Child Development//​ 80, no. 5 (2009): 1463-1464.)) and the acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease.((R.F. Anda, D.P. Chapman, V.J. Felitti, V. Edwards, D.F. Williamson, J.B. Croft, and W.H. Giles, “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Paternity in Teen Pregnancy,​” //​Obstetrics and Gynecology//​ 100, (2002): 37-45.)) Other studies have confirmed that male children of divorce have more relationships and more sexual partners than young men from intact families.((E. Spruijt and V. Duindam, “Problem Behavior of Boys and Young Men after Parental Divorce in the Netherlands,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 34, no. 3/4 (2005): 150.))+For sons, parental divorce and father absence is correlated with adolescent sexual intercourse,​ earlier sexual debut,((Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien ​O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190. \\ J. Mendle, K.P. Harden, E. Turkheimer, C.A. Van Hulle, B.M. D’Onofrio,​ J. Brooks-Gunn,​ J.L. Rodgers, R.E. Emery, and B.B. Lahey, "​Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse,"​ //Child Development//​ 80, no. 5 (2009): 1463-1464.)) and the acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease.((R.F. Anda, D.P. Chapman, V.J. Felitti, V. Edwards, D.F. Williamson, J.B. Croft, and W.H. Giles, “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Paternity in Teen Pregnancy,​” //​Obstetrics and Gynecology//​ 100, (2002): 37-45.)) Other studies have confirmed that male children of divorce have more relationships and more sexual partners than young men from intact families.((Ed Spruijt and Vincent ​Duindam, “Problem Behavior of Boys and Young Men after Parental Divorce in the Netherlands,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 34, no. 3/4 (2005): 150.))
  
-The influences of divorce on sexual behavior extends into adulthood: Adults raised in divorced families are more likely to engage in [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|short sexual affairs]] and also have more sexual partners than adults from intact families.((F.H. Jónsson, ​U. Njardvik, ​G. Ólafsdóttir,​ and S.J. Grétarsson,​ “Parental Divorce: Long-term Effects on Mental Health, Family Relations, and Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //​Scandinavian Journal of Psychology//​ 41, (2000): 103.))+The influences of divorce on sexual behavior extends into adulthood: Adults raised in divorced families are more likely to engage in [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|short sexual affairs]] and also have more sexual partners than adults from intact families.((Fridrik ​H. Jónsson, ​Urdur Njardvik, ​Gudlaug ​Ólafsdóttir,​ and Sigurdur ​J. Grétarsson,​ “Parental Divorce: Long-term Effects on Mental Health, Family Relations, and Adult Sexual Behavior,​” //​Scandinavian Journal of Psychology//​ 41, (2000): 103.))
  
 ====1.3 Related American Demographics==== ====1.3 Related American Demographics====
  
-According to the Adolescent Health Survey, girls in grades 7-12 living in intact married families have the fewest sexual partners (0.71 sexual partners) of all family structure. Girls living in stepfamilies (1.39 partners) and divorced families (1.29 partners) tend to have the highest number of sexual partners.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ P.F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Sexual Intercourse Partners—Adolescent Girls,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K28.pdf]])) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF08K28.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​ +According to the Adolescent Health Survey, girls in grades 7-12 living in intact married families have the fewest sexual partners (0.71 sexual partners) of all family structure. Girls living in stepfamilies (1.39 partners) and divorced families (1.29 partners) tend to have the highest number of sexual partners.((This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Waves I and II. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. \\ Patrick ​F. Fagan, "​Family Structure and Sexual Intercourse Partners—Adolescent Girls,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-4-6-150.pdf]])) (See [[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-4-6-150.pdf|Chart]] Below) ​
- +
-[[http://​downloads.frc.org/​EF/​EF08K28.pdf|{{ :​family_structure_and_sexual_intercourse_partners_adolescent_girls.png?​400 |Sexual Intercourse Partners for Girls by Family Structure}}]]+
  
 +[[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-4-6-150.pdf|{{ :​number_of_sexual_partners_for_adolescent_girls_by_family_structure.jpg?​500 |Sexual Intercourse Partners for Girls by Family Structure}}]]
 =====2. Sexual Behaviors===== =====2. Sexual Behaviors=====
  
-Virginity among teenagers of all ages correlates closely with the presence of married parents.((D.M. Capaldi, ​L. Crosby, and M. Stoolmiller,​ “Predicting the Timing of First Sexual Intercourse for At-Risk Adolescent Males,” //Child Development//​ 67, (1996): 344-359.)) Each change in family structure during adolescence (from married to divorced, from single to married, or from divorced to stepfamily) increases the risk of initiation of sexual intercourse for many of the teenage children in these unions.((C. Albrecht and J.D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Risk of Premarital Intercourse,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 24, (2003): 867-894.  +Virginity among teenagers of all ages correlates closely with the presence of married parents.((Deborah ​M. Capaldi, ​Lynn Crosby, and Mike Stoolmiller,​ “Predicting the Timing of First Sexual Intercourse for At-Risk Adolescent Males,” //Child Development//​ 67, (1996): 344-359.)) Each change in family structure during adolescence (from married to divorced, from single to married, or from divorced to stepfamily) increases the risk of initiation of sexual intercourse for many of the teenage children in these unions.((Chris Albrecht and Jay D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Risk of Premarital Intercourse,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 24, (2003): 867-894.  
-\\ R.J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.))+\\ Robert ​J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.))
  
-The children of divorce date more and thus have a higher turnover of dating partners and more failed romantic relationships,​((Medical Institute for Sexual Health, //Sexual Health Today// (Austin, TX: Medical Institute of Sexual Health, 1997), 105.)) which may contribute to a larger number of sexual partners,((A. Booth, ​D.B. Brinkerhoff,​ and L.K. White, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Courtship,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 46, (1984): 85-94; ​F.F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and J.O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190; S. Newcomer and J.R. Udry, “Parental Marital Status Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 235-240. As cited in P.R. Amato and A. Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).)) a risk factor for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases((T.R. Eng and W.T. Butler, eds., //The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases// (Washington,​ D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997), chapters 3 and 4, 69-174. )) and a host of emotional repercussions. Children with divorced parents tend to have [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|lower relationship quality]].((R.J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.)) Even without the addition of a working mother, divorce leads to an above-average number of sexual partners for the children of divorce as adults.((R.J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.)) ​+The children of divorce date more and thus have a higher turnover of dating partners and more failed romantic relationships,​((Medical Institute for Sexual Health, //Sexual Health Today// (Austin, TX: Medical Institute of Sexual Health, 1997), 105.)) which may contribute to a larger number of sexual partners,((Alan Booth, ​David B. Brinkerhoff,​ and Lynn K. White, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Courtship,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 46, (1984): 85-94; ​Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien ​O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190; S. Newcomer and J.R. Udry, “Parental Marital Status Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 235-240. As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, //A Generation at Risk//, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997).)) a risk factor for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases((Thomas ​R. Eng and William ​T. Butler, eds., //The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases// (Washington,​ D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997), chapters 3 and 4, 69-174. )) and a host of emotional repercussions. Children with divorced parents tend to have [[effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships|lower relationship quality]].((Robert ​J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.)) Even without the addition of a working mother, divorce leads to an above-average number of sexual partners for the children of divorce as adults.((Robert ​J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.)) ​
  
 Following a divorce, most [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|mothers have to work full-time]]. This combination of divorce and a full-time working mother leads to the highest level of teenage sexual activity((J.O. G. Billy (1994). As cited in David Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 131.)) and is significantly correlated with multiple sexual partners in adult life.((Seidman,​ Mosher, and Aral (1994). As cited in D. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 131.)) Following a divorce, most [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|mothers have to work full-time]]. This combination of divorce and a full-time working mother leads to the highest level of teenage sexual activity((J.O. G. Billy (1994). As cited in David Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 131.)) and is significantly correlated with multiple sexual partners in adult life.((Seidman,​ Mosher, and Aral (1994). As cited in D. Larson, //The Costly Consequences of Divorce// (Rockville, MD: National Institute for Healthcare Research, 1995), 131.))
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 =====3. Pregnancy===== =====3. Pregnancy=====
  
-Women whose parents separated during childhood are more likely to have an out-of-wedlock [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|teenage pregnancy]],​((R.J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.  +Women whose parents separated during childhood are more likely to have an out-of-wedlock [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|teenage pregnancy]],​((Robert ​J. Quinlan, “Father Absence, Parental Care, and Female Reproductive Development,​” //Evolution and Human Behavior// 24, (2003): 376–390.  
-\\ K.E. Kiernan and J. Hobcraft, “Parental Divorce during Childhood: Age at First Intercourse,​ Partnership and Parenthood,​” //​Population Studies// 51, (1997): 41-55.  +\\ Kathleen ​E. Kiernan and John Hobcraft, “Parental Divorce during Childhood: Age at First Intercourse,​ Partnership and Parenthood,​” //​Population Studies// 51, (1997): 41-55.  
-\\ F.F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and J.O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190.  +\\ Frank F. Furstenberg,​ Jr. and Julien ​O. Teitler, “Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?​” //Journal of Family Issues// 15, (1994): 173-190.  
-\\ S. McLanahan and L. Bumpass, “Intergenerational Consequences of Family Disruption,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 94, (1988): 130-152.)) and men with divorced or separated parents are more likely to father a child with a teenage mother.((R.F. Anda, D.P. Chapman, V.J. Felitti, V. Edwards, D.F. Williamson, J.B. Croft, and W.H. Giles, “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Paternity in Teen Pregnancy,​” //​Obstetrics and Gynecology//​ 100, (2002): 37-45.)) In Britain, the phenomenon of out-of-wedlock pregnancy to children of divorced parents has also been found.((A.J. Cherlin, ​K.E. Kiernan, and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale,​ “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,​” //​Demography//​ 32, (1995): 299-316.))+\\ Sara McLanahan and Larry Bumpass, “Intergenerational Consequences of Family Disruption,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 94, (1988): 130-152.)) and men with divorced or separated parents are more likely to father a child with a teenage mother.((R.F. Anda, D.P. Chapman, V.J. Felitti, V. Edwards, D.F. Williamson, J.B. Croft, and W.H. Giles, “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Paternity in Teen Pregnancy,​” //​Obstetrics and Gynecology//​ 100, (2002): 37-45.)) In Britain, the phenomenon of out-of-wedlock pregnancy to children of divorced parents has also been found.((Andrew ​J. Cherlin, ​Kathleen ​E. Kiernan, and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale,​ “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,​” //​Demography//​ 32, (1995): 299-316.))
  
 =====4. Abortion===== =====4. Abortion=====
  
-Daughters of divorced parents have more abortions than the daughters of non-divorced parents, according to a Finnish study.((H.M. Aro and U.K. Palosaari, “Parental Divorce, Adolescence,​ and Transition to Young Adulthood: A Follow-up Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 63, (1992): 425.+Daughters of divorced parents have more abortions than the daughters of non-divorced parents, according to a Finnish study.((Hillevi ​M. Aro and Ulla K. Palosaari, “Parental Divorce, Adolescence,​ and Transition to Young Adulthood: A Follow-up Study,” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 63, (1992): 425.
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].))+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/|The Effects of Divorce on Children]].)) 
 + 
 +=====5. Future Relationship Stability===== 
 + 
 +Marriage trends are driven by sexual decisions—chastity and monogamy, or their opposite, polyamory. This chart shows the status of American marriages five years into the marriage. Among both men and women who have never had any sexual partner other than their spouse (ie. they were totally monogamous),​ 97 percent of women and 99 percent of men were still married. For women who had one extra sexual partner (for most, before marriage) only 64 percent were still married—a drop of 33 percent, which is twice the rate of men. For those women who had two sexual partners outside of marriage, only 55 percent were still married five years down the road.  
 + 
 +{{ :​wcf_number_sexual_partners.png?​direct&​500 |Men and Women in First Marriage by Number of Sexual Partners}} 
 + 
 +Clearly, the more sexual partners an individual has, the less he/ she is capable to sustain marriage. This is especially true for women, who experience a steeper and more significant reduction in marital security with each additional non-marital or extra-marital partner.  
 +  
 + 
 +