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effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships [2015/11/06 13:50]
marri2
effect_of_divorce_on_children_s_future_relationships [2017/05/26 07:46] (current)
marri [8. Related American Demographics]
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 =====3. Acceptance of Divorce===== =====3. Acceptance of Divorce=====
  
-Compared with children of always-married parents, children of divorced parents have more positive attitudes towards divorce((Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes toward Divorce and Gender Roles,” //Journal of Family Issues// 12, (1991): 306-322. \\ Inge Sieben and Ellen Verbakel, "​Permissiveness Toward Divorce: The Influence of Divorce Experiences in Three Social Contexts,"​ //European Sociological Review// 29, no. 6 (2013): 1175, 1182, 1186.)) and less favorable attitudes towards marriage.((A.M. Jennings, C.J. Salts, and T.A. Smith, Jr., “Attitudes Toward Marriage: Effects of Parental Conflict, Family Structure, and Gender,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 17, (1992): 67-78. \\ H. Yun-Chen, and L. Shu-Hui, "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.)) Specifically,​ “adolescents who have experienced their parents’ divorces and remarriages may feel that marriage is unpredictable and unstable.”((Sharon C. Risch, Kathleen M. Jodl, and Jaquelynne S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, (2004): 55.)) [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|People raised in divorced families]] are less likely than those from intact families to believe that marriage is enduring and permanent,​((Daniel J. Weigel, “Parental Divorce and the Types of Commitment-Related Messages People Gain from Their Families of Origin,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 47, (2007): 23.)) are less likely to insist upon a lifelong marital commitment,​((Department of Health and Human Services, //Changes in Marriage and Fertility Behavior: Behavior versus Attitudes of Young Adults// Kristin A. Moore and Thomas M. Stief, (Child Trends, Inc., July 1989). \\ Paul R. Amato, and Danelle D. DeBoer, "The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,"​ //Journal Of Marriage & Family// 63, no. 4 (November 2001): 1038, 1046.)) and are less likely to think positively of themselves as parents.((Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Colleen Dostal, “Retrospective Reports of Family-of-Origin Divorce and Abuse and College Students’ Pre-parenthood Cognitions,​” //Journal of Family Violence// 11, (1996): 331-348.)) Parental breakup also increases children’s acceptance of cohabitation,​ at least until adulthood. However, [[effects_of_religious_practice_on_sexual_behavior|religious participation]] can reduce this effect.((Mick Cunningham, and Arland Thornton, "​Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents'​ Marital Instability on Children'​s Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125, 136.)) ​+Compared with children of always-married parents, children of divorced parents have more positive attitudes towards divorce((Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes toward Divorce and Gender Roles,” //Journal of Family Issues// 12, (1991): 306-322. \\ Inge Sieben and Ellen Verbakel, "​Permissiveness Toward Divorce: The Influence of Divorce Experiences in Three Social Contexts,"​ //European Sociological Review// 29, no. 6 (2013): 1175, 1182, 1186.)) and less favorable attitudes towards marriage.((A.M. Jennings, C.J. Salts, and T.A. Smith, Jr., “Attitudes Toward Marriage: Effects of Parental Conflict, Family Structure, and Gender,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 17, (1992): 67-78. \\ Huang Yun-Chen, and Lin Shu-Hui, "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.)) Specifically,​ “adolescents who have experienced their parents’ divorces and remarriages may feel that marriage is unpredictable and unstable.”((Sharon C. Risch, Kathleen M. Jodl, and Jaquelynne S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, (2004): 55.)) [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|People raised in divorced families]] are less likely than those from intact families to believe that marriage is enduring and permanent,​((Daniel J. Weigel, “Parental Divorce and the Types of Commitment-Related Messages People Gain from Their Families of Origin,” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 47, (2007): 23.)) are less likely to insist upon a lifelong marital commitment,​((Department of Health and Human Services, //Changes in Marriage and Fertility Behavior: Behavior versus Attitudes of Young Adults// Kristin A. Moore and Thomas M. Stief, (Child Trends, Inc., July 1989). \\ Paul R. Amato, and Danelle D. DeBoer, "The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,"​ //Journal Of Marriage & Family// 63, no. 4 (November 2001): 1038, 1046.)) and are less likely to think positively of themselves as parents.((Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Colleen Dostal, “Retrospective Reports of Family-of-Origin Divorce and Abuse and College Students’ Pre-parenthood Cognitions,​” //Journal of Family Violence// 11, (1996): 331-348.)) Parental breakup also increases children’s acceptance of cohabitation,​ at least until adulthood. However, [[effects_of_religious_practice_on_sexual_behavior|religious participation]] can reduce this effect.((Mick Cunningham, and Arland Thornton, "​Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents'​ Marital Instability on Children'​s Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,"​ //Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125, 136.)) ​
  
 These attitudinal differences among children of divorced parents are noticeable even as early as kindergarten.((E. Mazur, “Developmental Differences in Children’s Understanding of Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage,​” //Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology//​ 14, (1993): 191-212.)) Children from divorced families are more tolerant of divorce than are children from intact families, though this is only likely if their parents had remarried. Without remarriage, the effect on their views of divorce was not significant.((Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents’ and Offsprings’ Experience with Cohabitation,​ Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 1/2 (2005): 131.)) The mothers’ accepting attitudes toward divorce cause more children to be accepting of divorce themselves.((Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents'​ and Offsprings'​ Experience with Cohabitation,​ Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes Toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 1 (2005): 119-144.)) These positive attitudes towards divorce affect not only likelihood of divorce, but also overall relationship quality. These attitudinal differences among children of divorced parents are noticeable even as early as kindergarten.((E. Mazur, “Developmental Differences in Children’s Understanding of Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage,​” //Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology//​ 14, (1993): 191-212.)) Children from divorced families are more tolerant of divorce than are children from intact families, though this is only likely if their parents had remarried. Without remarriage, the effect on their views of divorce was not significant.((Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents’ and Offsprings’ Experience with Cohabitation,​ Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 1/2 (2005): 131.)) The mothers’ accepting attitudes toward divorce cause more children to be accepting of divorce themselves.((Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents'​ and Offsprings'​ Experience with Cohabitation,​ Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes Toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,​” //Journal of Divorce and Remarriage//​ 44, no. 1 (2005): 119-144.)) These positive attitudes towards divorce affect not only likelihood of divorce, but also overall relationship quality.
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 =====4. Expectations to Marry or Divorce==== =====4. Expectations to Marry or Divorce====
  
-The children of divorced parents, stepfamilies,​ or single parents are less likely to expect to marry.((Paul R. Amato, “Parental Divorce and Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family Life,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 50, (1988): 453-461; ​W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81; ​S.R. Crissey, “Race/​Ethnic Differences in The Marital Expectations of Adolescents:​ The Role of Romantic Relationships,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, (2005): 697-709; ​F.L. Tasker and M.P. M. Richards, “Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Marriage and Marital Prospects After Parental Divorce: A Review,” //Journal of Adolescent Research// 9, (1994): 340-362. As cited in W.D. Manning, ​M.A. Longmore, and P.C. Giordano, “The Changing Institution of Marriage: Adolescents’ Expectation to Cohabit and to Marry,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, (2007): 559-575.)) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more likely to expect to divorce, compared with children of intact families.((P.F. Fagan and R. Rector, “The Effects of Divorce on America,” //​Backgrounder//​ 1373 (Washington,​ D.C.: The Heritage Foundation, 5 June 2000).)) Children of divorce also have more negative attitudes towards marriage((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 73. \\ H. Yun-Chen and L. Shu-Hui. "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.)) and a preference for smaller family sizes, although the negative attitudes are mitigated by their parents’ remarriage.((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 73.))+The children of divorced parents, stepfamilies,​ or single parents are less likely to expect to marry.((Paul R. Amato, “Parental Divorce and Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family Life,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 50, (1988): 453-461; ​William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81; ​Sarah R. Crissey, “Race/​Ethnic Differences in The Marital Expectations of Adolescents:​ The Role of Romantic Relationships,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 67, (2005): 697-709; ​Fiona L. Tasker and Martin ​P.M. Richards, “Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Marriage and Marital Prospects After Parental Divorce: A Review,” //Journal of Adolescent Research// 9, (1994): 340-362. As cited in Wendy D. Manning, ​Monica ​A. Longmore, and Peggy C. Giordano, “The Changing Institution of Marriage: Adolescents’ Expectation to Cohabit and to Marry,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 69, (2007): 559-575.)) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more likely to expect to divorce, compared with children of intact families.((Patrick ​F. Fagan and Robert ​Rector, “The Effects of Divorce on America,” //​Backgrounder//​ 1373 (Washington,​ D.C.: The Heritage Foundation, 5 June 2000).)) Children of divorce also have more negative attitudes towards marriage((William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 73. \\ Huang Yun-Chen and Lin Shu-Hui. "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.)) and a preference for smaller family sizes, although the negative attitudes are mitigated by their parents’ remarriage.((William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 73.))
  
 =====5. Likelihood to Marry or Divorce===== =====5. Likelihood to Marry or Divorce=====
  
-One generation [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|passes on its marital instability]] to the next.((L.L. Bumpass, ​T.C. Martin, and J.A. Sweet, “The Impact of Family Background and Early Marital Factors on Marital Disruption,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 12, (1991): 22-42; ​V.M. Keith and B. Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 797-809; ​R.A. Kulka and H. Weingarten, “The Longterm Effects of Parental Divorce in Childhood on Adult Adjustment,​” //Journal of Social Issues// 35, (1979): 50-78; C.W. Mueller and H. Pope, “Marital Instability:​ A Study of Its Transmission between Generations,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 39, (1977): 83-93; H. Pope and C.W. Mueller, “The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Instability:​ Comparisons by Race and Sex,” //Journal of Social Issues// 32, (1976): 49-66. All as cited in P. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628. \\ P.R. Amato, and D.D. DeBoer, "The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,"​ //Journal Of Marriage & Family// 63, no. 4 (2001): 1038.)) Sons of divorced parents with less educated mothers have an increased tendency to forgo marriage.((V.M. Keith and B. Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 804.)) Additionally,​ parental divorce raises children’s likelihood of divorce:((J.D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 717-729. +One generation [[long_term_effects_of_divorce|passes on its marital instability]] to the next.((Larry L. Bumpass, ​Teresa ​C. Martin, and James A. Sweet, “The Impact of Family Background and Early Marital Factors on Marital Disruption,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 12, (1991): 22-42; ​Verna M. Keith and Barbara ​Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 797-809; ​Richard ​A. Kulka and Helen Weingarten, “The Longterm Effects of Parental Divorce in Childhood on Adult Adjustment,​” //Journal of Social Issues// 35, (1979): 50-78; C.W. Mueller and H. Pope, “Marital Instability:​ A Study of Its Transmission between Generations,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 39, (1977): 83-93; H. Pope and C.W. Mueller, “The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Instability:​ Comparisons by Race and Sex,” //Journal of Social Issues// 32, (1976): 49-66. All as cited in Paul Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628. \\ Paul R. Amato, and Danelle ​D. DeBoer, "The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,"​ //Journal Of Marriage & Family// 63, no. 4 (2001): 1038.)) Sons of divorced parents with less educated mothers have an increased tendency to forgo marriage.((Verna M. Keith and Barbara ​Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 804.)) Additionally,​ parental divorce raises children’s likelihood of divorce:((Jay D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, (2002): 717-729. 
-\\ N.H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, (2000): 1061-1086.+\\ Nicholas ​H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, (2000): 1061-1086.
 \\ J.S. Tucker, H.S. Friedman, J.E. Schwartz, M.H. Criqui, C. Tomlinson-Keasey,​ D.L. Wingard, and L.R. Martin, “Parental Divorce: Effects on Individual Behavior and Longevity,​” //Journal of Personality and Social Psychology//​ 73, (1997): 385-386. \\ J.S. Tucker, H.S. Friedman, J.E. Schwartz, M.H. Criqui, C. Tomlinson-Keasey,​ D.L. Wingard, and L.R. Martin, “Parental Divorce: Effects on Individual Behavior and Longevity,​” //Journal of Personality and Social Psychology//​ 73, (1997): 385-386.
-\\ P.R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628-640. +\\ Paul R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628-640. 
-\\ V.M. Keith and B. Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 797-809. +\\ Verna M. Keith and Barbara ​Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 50, (1988): 797-809. 
-\\ N.D. Glenn and K.B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 811-825. +\\ Norval ​D. Glenn and Kathryn ​B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 811-825. 
-\\ S. McLanahan and L. Bumpass, “Intergenerational Consequences of Family Disruption,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 94, (1988): 130-152. +\\ Sara McLanahan and Larry Bumpass, “Intergenerational Consequences of Family Disruption,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 94, (1988): 130-152. 
-\\ P.R. Amato and B. Keith, “Parental Divorce and Adult Well-being: A Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 53, (1991): 43-58. +\\ Paul R. Amato and Bruce Keith, “Parental Divorce and Adult Well-being: A Meta-Analysis,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 53, (1991): 43-58. 
-\\ P.R. Amato and D.D. DeBoer, “The Transmission of Marital Instability across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 63, (2001): 1054.)) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more than twice as likely to divorce, compared with children of intact families.((P.S. Webster, ​T.L. Orbuch, and J.S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 101, (1995): 404-432.)) One study found that adults who experience parental divorce have chances of divorce 38 percent higher than adults raised in intact families. Significantly,​ this increase is not seen in children whose parents’ marriage ended because of the death of one of the parents.((J.D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 64, (2002): 722))  ​+\\ Paul R. Amato and Danelle ​D. DeBoer, “The Transmission of Marital Instability across Generations:​ Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 63, (2001): 1054.)) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more than twice as likely to divorce, compared with children of intact families.((Pamala ​S. Webster, ​Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology// 101, (1995): 404-432.)) One study found that adults who experience parental divorce have chances of divorce 38 percent higher than adults raised in intact families. Significantly,​ this increase is not seen in children whose parents’ marriage ended because of the death of one of the parents.((Jay D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 64, (2002): 722))  ​
  
-Children of divorce are 39 percent more likely to marry other children of divorce, after controlling for education. Couples with one spouse from a divorced home are nearly twice as likely to divorce as couples with both spouses from non-divorced families. Worse still, couples with both spouses from divorced families are over three times more likely to divorce than couples with both spouses from non-divorced families.((Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Family Structure Homogamy: The Effects of Parental Divorce on Partner Selection and Marital Stability,​” //Social Science Research// 32 (2003): 91-92.)) ​+Children of divorce are 39 percent more likely to marry other children of divorce, after controlling for education. Couples with one spouse from a divorced home are nearly twice as likely to divorce as couples with both spouses from non-divorced families. Worse still, couples with both spouses from divorced families are over three times more likely to divorce than couples with both spouses from non-divorced families.((Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Family Structure Homogamy: The Effects of Parental Divorce on Partner Selection and Marital Stability,​” //Social Science Research// 32(2003): 91-92.)) ​
  
-Children who experience three or more transitions in family structure are much more likely to divorce later in life, compared to children who did not experience such family transitions.((N.H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, no. 8 (2000): 1074.)) That is, 59 percent of the individuals who have never experienced a transition are predicted to never end a marriage, compared to those who experienced three or more transitions,​ whose likelihood to never divorce is about 33 percent.((N.H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, no. 8 (2000): 1075.)) ​+Children who experience three or more transitions in family structure are much more likely to divorce later in life, compared to children who did not experience such family transitions.((Nicholas ​H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, no. 8 (2000): 1074.)) That is, 59 percent of the individuals who have never experienced a transition are predicted to never end a marriage, compared to those who experienced three or more transitions,​ whose likelihood to never divorce is about 33 percent.((Nicholas ​H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” //Journal of Family Issues// 21, no. 8 (2000): 1075.)) ​
  
-Daughters of divorced parents divorce more than sons of divorced parents do.((N.D. Glenn and K.B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 811-825.)) The risk of divorce in the first five years is 70((P.R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628.)) to 76((P.R. Amato and A. Booth, //A Generation at Risk// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 115.)) percent higher for the daughters of divorced parents than for daughters of intact marriages.((According to Amato and Booth’s research, the risk is highest when the divorce takes place before the child reaches age 13. The risk that the child will divorce decreases significantly when their parents’ divorce takes place during the teen years. Finally, parental divorce when their offspring are in their twenties may even inoculate them against divorce. See P. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 638.))+Daughters of divorced parents divorce more than sons of divorced parents do.((Norval ​D. Glenn and Kathryn ​B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 49, (1987): 811-825.)) The risk of divorce in the first five years is 70((Paul R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 628.)) to 76((Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, //A Generation at Risk// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 115.)) percent higher for the daughters of divorced parents than for daughters of intact marriages.((According to Amato and Booth’s research, the risk is highest when the divorce takes place before the child reaches age 13. The risk that the child will divorce decreases significantly when their parents’ divorce takes place during the teen years. Finally, parental divorce when their offspring are in their twenties may even inoculate them against divorce. See Paul Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 58, (1996): 638.))
  
 =====6. Marital Behavior===== =====6. Marital Behavior=====
  
-Adult male children of divorced parents show more ambivalence than men from intact families about becoming involved in a relationship,​((S.E. Jacquet and C.A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 633.)) though they invest more money and tangible goods in casual dating relationships. Women share this ambivalence and demonstrate even more conflict, doubt, and lack of faith in their partner’s benevolence and tend to place less value on consistent commitment.((S.E. Jacquet and C.A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 627-638.)) [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|Unwed teen mothers]], who have expectations of rejection and divorce in relationships,​ seem to retain negative attitudes towards men instilled by their parents’ divorce.((S. Schamess, “The Search for Love: Unmarried Adolescent Mothers’ Views of and Relationships with Men,” //​Adolescence//​ 28, (1993): 425-437.))+Adult male children of divorced parents show more ambivalence than men from intact families about becoming involved in a relationship,​((Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine ​A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 633.)) though they invest more money and tangible goods in casual dating relationships. Women share this ambivalence and demonstrate even more conflict, doubt, and lack of faith in their partner’s benevolence and tend to place less value on consistent commitment.((Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine ​A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 63, (2001): 627-638.)) [[effects_of_family_structure_on_teen_pregnancies|Unwed teen mothers]], who have expectations of rejection and divorce in relationships,​ seem to retain negative attitudes towards men instilled by their parents’ divorce.((S. Schamess, “The Search for Love: Unmarried Adolescent Mothers’ Views of and Relationships with Men,” //​Adolescence//​ 28, (1993): 425-437.))
  
-Parental divorce is also associated with lower marital quality for their children. This manifests itself in arguing more about the family,((S.G. Timmer and J. Veroff, “Family Ties and the Discontinuity of Divorce in Black and White Newlywed Couples,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 62, (2000): 349-361.)) increased rates of jealousy, moodiness, infidelity, conflicts over money, excessive drinking, and drug use.((P.R. Amato and S. Rogers, “A Longitudinal Study of Marital Problems and Subsequent Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 59, (1997): 621.)) Analysis of the 1987-1988 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households showed that children of divorce whose marriages were less than “very happy” communicated less and were more than twice as likely to argue frequently and to [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|shout and hit]] when they argued.((P.S. Webster, ​T.L. Orbuch, and J.S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology // 101, (1995): 404-432.))+Parental divorce is also associated with lower marital quality for their children. This manifests itself in arguing more about the family,((Susan G. Timmer and Joseph ​Veroff, “Family Ties and the Discontinuity of Divorce in Black and White Newlywed Couples,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 62, (2000): 349-361.)) increased rates of jealousy, moodiness, infidelity, conflicts over money, excessive drinking, and drug use.((Paul R. Amato and Stacy Rogers, “A Longitudinal Study of Marital Problems and Subsequent Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 59, (1997): 621.)) Analysis of the 1987-1988 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households showed that children of divorce whose marriages were less than “very happy” communicated less and were more than twice as likely to argue frequently and to [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.behavior|shout and hit]] when they argued.((Pamela ​S. Webster, ​Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,​” //American Journal of Sociology // 101, (1995): 404-432.))
  
-The child with an available father, both in the early and the adolescent years, is more companionable and responsible as an adult.((J. Snarey, //How Fathers Care for the Next Generation//​ (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 163-164.)) In particular, “boys who feel close to their fathers, regardless of biological status, have better attitudes about intimacy and the prospect of their own married lives than boys who do not [[effects_of_divorce_on_family_relationships|feel close to their fathers]].”((S.C. Risch, ​K.M. Jodl, and J.S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, (2004): 55.))+The child with an available father, both in the early and the adolescent years, is more companionable and responsible as an adult.((John Snarey, //How Fathers Care for the Next Generation//​ (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 163-164.)) In particular, “boys who feel close to their fathers, regardless of biological status, have better attitudes about intimacy and the prospect of their own married lives than boys who do not [[effects_of_divorce_on_family_relationships|feel close to their fathers]].”((Sharon ​C. Risch, ​Kathleen ​M. Jodl, and Jaquelynne ​S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 66, (2004): 55.))
  
 =====7. Cohabitation===== =====7. Cohabitation=====
  
-Children of divorced parents are more likely to have more positive attitudes towards cohabitation((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996) 66-81. \\ S. Southworth and J.C. Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,​” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 57, (1987): 379-381. \\ M. Cunningham, ​ and A. Thornton, "​Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents'​ Marital Instability on Children'​s Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,"​ //Journal of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125.)) and more negative attitudes towards marriage than children of always-married parents.((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81. \\ H. Yun-Chen and L. Shu-Hui, "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431.)) When they leave home, they are two to three times as likely to cohabit((D.T. Lichter, ​D.R. Graefe, and J.B. Brown, “Is Marriage a Panacea? Union Formation among Economically Disadvantaged Unwed Mothers,” //Social Problems// 50, (2003): 60-86. ​+Children of divorced parents are more likely to have more positive attitudes towards cohabitation((W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996) 66-81. \\ S. Southworth and J.C. Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,​” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 57, (1987): 379-381. \\ M. Cunningham, ​ and A. Thornton, "​Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents'​ Marital Instability on Children'​s Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,"​ //Journal of Divorce & Remarriage//​ 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125.)) and more negative attitudes towards marriage than children of always-married parents.((William ​G. Axinn and Arland ​Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,​” //​Demography//​ 33, (1996): 66-81. \\ Huang Yun-Chen and Lin Shu-Hui, "​Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,"​ //Journal of Comparative Family Studies// 45, no. 3 (2014): 431.)) When they leave home, they are two to three times as likely to cohabit((Daniel ​T. Lichter, ​Deborah ​R. Graefe, and J.B. Brown, “Is Marriage a Panacea? Union Formation among Economically Disadvantaged Unwed Mothers,” //Social Problems// 50, (2003): 60-86. ​
 \\ R.A. Colman and C.S. Widom, “Childhood Abuse and Adult Intimate Relationships:​ A Prospective Study,” //Child Abuse and Neglect// 28, (2004): 1133-1151. ​ \\ R.A. Colman and C.S. Widom, “Childhood Abuse and Adult Intimate Relationships:​ A Prospective Study,” //Child Abuse and Neglect// 28, (2004): 1133-1151. ​
-\\ J.D. Teachman, “The Childhood Living Arrangement of Children and the Characteristics of Their Marriages,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 25, (2004): 86-111.)) and to do so earlier,((A.J. Cherlin, ​K.E. Kiernan, and P.L. Chase-Lansdale,​ “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,​” //​Demography//​ 32, (1995): 299-316.)) especially if their parents divorced during their teenage years.((P.R. Amato and A. Booth, //A Generation at Risk// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 112.)) ​+\\ Jay D. Teachman, “The Childhood Living Arrangement of Children and the Characteristics of Their Marriages,​” //Journal of Family Issues// 25, (2004): 86-111.)) and to do so earlier,((Andrew ​J. Cherlin, ​Kathleen ​E. Kiernan, and P. Linsday ​Chase-Lansdale,​ “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,​” //​Demography//​ 32, (1995): 299-316.)) especially if their parents divorced during their teenage years.((Paul R. Amato and Arland ​Booth, //A Generation at Risk// (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 112.)) ​
  
-Daughters of divorced parents anticipated cohabiting before marriage, regardless of the amount of affection between them and their fathers. Among daughters of intact marriages, it was mainly those with [[effects_of_divorce_on_family_relationships|poor relationships with their fathers]] who anticipated they would cohabit.((S. Southworth and J.C. Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,​” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 57, (1987): 379-381.))+Daughters of divorced parents anticipated cohabiting before marriage, regardless of the amount of affection between them and their fathers. Among daughters of intact marriages, it was mainly those with [[effects_of_divorce_on_family_relationships|poor relationships with their fathers]] who anticipated they would cohabit.((Suzanne ​Southworth and J. Conrad ​Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,​” //American Journal of Orthopsychiatry//​ 57, (1987): 379-381.))
  
 =====8. Related American Demographics===== =====8. Related American Demographics=====
  
-According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 18 percent of adults who were raised in an intact family have ever been divorced or separated, compared to 28 percent of those who lived in a non-intact family.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,​510.\\ ​P.F. Fagan and A. Nagai, "​Mapping America 62: Divorce or Separation: Family Structure in Adolescence,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://​marri.us/​get.cfm?​i=MA09F02]].+According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 18 percent of adults who were raised in an intact family have ever been divorced or separated, compared to 28 percent of those who lived in a non-intact family.((This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,​510.\\ ​Patrick ​F. Fagan and Althea ​Nagai, "​Mapping America 62: Divorce or Separation: Family Structure in Adolescence,"​ Mapping America Project. Available at [[http://​marri.us/​wp-content/​uploads/​MA-61-63-169.pdf]].
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​effects-divorce-children|Effects of Divorce on Children]].)) (See [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09G58.pdf | Chart]] Below) ​+This entry draws heavily from [[http://​marri.us/​research/​research-papers/​the-effects-of-divorce-on-children/|Effects of Divorce on Children]].)) (See [[http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/​MA-61-63-169.pdf| Chart]] Below) ​
  
-[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF09G58.pdf|{{ :divorce_or_separation_by_family_structure_in_adolescence.png?500 |Divorce or Separation in Adulthood by Family Structure in Adolescence}}]]+[[http://marri.us/​wp-content/uploads/MA-61-63-169.pdf|{{ :divorce_or_separation_by_family_structure_during_adolescence.jpg?500 |Divorce or Separation in Adulthood by Family Structure in Adolescence}}]]