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effect_of_child_abuse_on_crime_rates [2015/11/04 07:38]
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effect_of_child_abuse_on_crime_rates [2015/11/04 07:54]
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 Studies of the official records of abused children and arrested offenders put this connection in the range of 14 percent to 26 percent.((D.O. Lewis, S.S. Shanok, J.H. Pincusand, and G.H. Glaser, “Violence Juvenile Delinquents:​ Psychiatric,​ Neurological,​ Psychological and Abuse Factors,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 18, (1979): 307-319; Peter C. Kratcoski, “Child Abuse and Violence Against the Family,” //Child Welfare// 61, (1982): 435-443; F.G. Bolton, J.W. Reich, and S.E. Guiterres, “Delinquency Patterns in Maltreated Children and Siblings,​” //​Victimology//​ 2 (1977): 349-357.)) But the connection triples to a range of 50 percent to 70 percent once researchers go beyond official reports of investigated cases of child abuse to reports of abuse by the delinquents themselves.((C.M. Mouzakitis, “An Inquiry into Child Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency,​” //Exploring the Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency//,​ ed. R.J. Hunner and Y.E. Walker (1981): 220-231; P.W. Rhoades and S.L. Parker, //The Connections Between Youth Problems and Violence in the Home// (Portland: Oregon Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence, 1981).)) ​ Studies of the official records of abused children and arrested offenders put this connection in the range of 14 percent to 26 percent.((D.O. Lewis, S.S. Shanok, J.H. Pincusand, and G.H. Glaser, “Violence Juvenile Delinquents:​ Psychiatric,​ Neurological,​ Psychological and Abuse Factors,” //Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry//​ 18, (1979): 307-319; Peter C. Kratcoski, “Child Abuse and Violence Against the Family,” //Child Welfare// 61, (1982): 435-443; F.G. Bolton, J.W. Reich, and S.E. Guiterres, “Delinquency Patterns in Maltreated Children and Siblings,​” //​Victimology//​ 2 (1977): 349-357.)) But the connection triples to a range of 50 percent to 70 percent once researchers go beyond official reports of investigated cases of child abuse to reports of abuse by the delinquents themselves.((C.M. Mouzakitis, “An Inquiry into Child Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency,​” //Exploring the Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency//,​ ed. R.J. Hunner and Y.E. Walker (1981): 220-231; P.W. Rhoades and S.L. Parker, //The Connections Between Youth Problems and Violence in the Home// (Portland: Oregon Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence, 1981).)) ​
  
-Significantly,​ West Coast Crips and Bloods gang members almost without exception grew up in dangerous [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|family environments]].((M. Fleisher, //Sentenced to Life//, forthcoming.)) Typically, they left home to escape the violence or drifted away because they were abandoned or neglected by their parents.((An extract from a July 31, 1994, CBS “60 Minutes” interview with Cody Scott, convicted criminal leader of the Los Angeles Crips, confirms the import of the research: “My mother couldn’t protect me…and Dick [his father] couldn’t—he never came…I hate him. Because I think about where I could have been, you know. And I can’t dig that, man, the running out on your kids, you know. The father thing, man…That’s just heavy…because I wouldn’t have had to go to the street to find the street people.”)) Consequently,​ these young men have developed a defensive world view characterized by a feeling of vulnerability and a need to protect oneself, a belief that no one can be trusted, a need to maintain social distance, a willingness to use violence and intimidation to repel others, an attraction to similarly defensive people, and an expectation that no one will come to their aid.((Fleisher,​ //Sentenced to Life//, forthcoming.)) Young women delinquents who run away from home are also frequently victims of sexual abuse.((Magnus J. Seng, “Child Abuse and Prostitution:​ A Comparative Analysis,​” //​Adolescence//​ 24 (1989): 665-675; K.B. Morrow and G.T. Sorell, “Factors Affecting Self Esteem, Depression, and Negative Behaviors in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 51 (1989): 677-686.)) ​+Significantly,​ West Coast Crips and Bloods gang members almost without exception grew up in dangerous [[effects_of_family_structure_on_crime|family environments]].((M.S. Fleisher, //Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know // (Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press2000) )) Typically, they left home to escape the violence or drifted away because they were abandoned or neglected by their parents.((An extract from a July 31, 1994, CBS “60 Minutes” interview with Cody Scott, convicted criminal leader of the Los Angeles Crips, confirms the import of the research: “My mother couldn’t protect me…and Dick [his father] couldn’t—he never came…I hate him. Because I think about where I could have been, you know. And I can’t dig that, man, the running out on your kids, you know. The father thing, man…That’s just heavy…because I wouldn’t have had to go to the street to find the street people.”)) Consequently,​ these young men have developed a defensive world view characterized by a feeling of vulnerability and a need to protect oneself, a belief that no one can be trusted, a need to maintain social distance, a willingness to use violence and intimidation to repel others, an attraction to similarly defensive people, and an expectation that no one will come to their aid.((M.S. Fleisher, //Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know // (Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press2000))) Young women delinquents who run away from home are also frequently victims of sexual abuse.((Magnus J. Seng, “Child Abuse and Prostitution:​ A Comparative Analysis,​” //​Adolescence//​ 24 (1989): 665-675; K.B. Morrow and G.T. Sorell, “Factors Affecting Self Esteem, Depression, and Negative Behaviors in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents,​” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 51 (1989): 677-686.)) ​
  
 The close connection between child abuse and violent crime is highlighted also in a 1988 study of the 14 juveniles then condemned to death in the United States: 12 had been brutally abused, and 5 had been sodomized by relatives.((D.O. Lewis, J.H. Pincus, B. Bard, E. Richardson, L.S. Prichep, M. Feldman and C. Yager, “Neuropsychiatric,​ Psychoeducational and Family Characteristics of 14 Juveniles Condemned to Death in the United States,” //American Journal of Psychiatry//​ 145 (1988): 585-589.)) The close connection between child abuse and violent crime is highlighted also in a 1988 study of the 14 juveniles then condemned to death in the United States: 12 had been brutally abused, and 5 had been sodomized by relatives.((D.O. Lewis, J.H. Pincus, B. Bard, E. Richardson, L.S. Prichep, M. Feldman and C. Yager, “Neuropsychiatric,​ Psychoeducational and Family Characteristics of 14 Juveniles Condemned to Death in the United States,” //American Journal of Psychiatry//​ 145 (1988): 585-589.))