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biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2015/11/03 12:54]
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biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2017/05/16 07:18] (current)
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 {{ :​biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_figure_2.jpg?​direct&​600 |Lobule Development Before, During, and After Pregnancy}} {{ :​biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_figure_2.jpg?​direct&​600 |Lobule Development Before, During, and After Pregnancy}}
  
-If a pregnancy is healthy and lasts past 32 weeks, even should a mother deliver prematurely,​ she will have partial protection against breast cancer. Between 32 and 40 weeks’ gestation, she will gain an additional 11 percent reduction in breast cancer risk.((L.J. Vatten, P.R. Romundstad, D. Trichopoulos,​ and R. Skjærven, “Pregnancy Related Protection Against Breast Cancer Depends on Length of Gestation,​” //British Journal of Cancer// 87 (2002): 289-290.)) By the end of a normal pregnancy, 70 to 90 percent of the mother’s breast is composed of cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules.((J. Russo and I.H. Russo, “Development of the Human Mammary Gland,” //The Mammary Gland//, eds. M. Neville and C. Daniel (New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation,​ 1987).)) A woman’s risk of breast cancer will decrease an additional 10 percent with each subsequent pregnancy.((M. Lambe, CC. Hsieh, HW. Chan, A. Ekbom, D. Trichopoulos,​ and HO. Adami, “Parity, Age at First and Last Birth, and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Sweden,” //Breast Cancer Research and Treatment// 38 (1996): 305-311.)) This observed additional reduction in risk may be due to [[effects_of_breastfeeding_on_breast_cancer|increased breastfeeding]] among these women, fewer lifetime menstrual cycles, and more anovulatory postpartum cycles (that is, postpartum cycles that do not produce an egg) with lower estrogen exposure, all known to reduce risk. Therefore, the woman who has a full-term pregnancy obtains lifelong benefits from the epigenetic changes it produces in the breast cells and gains even more risk reduction with additional births and breastfeeding.((V. Beral, D. Bull, R. Doll, R. Peto, G. Reeves, Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Breast Cancer and Breastfeeding:​ Collaborative Reanalysis of Individual Data from 47 Epidemiological Studies in 30 Countries, Including 50,302 Women with Breast Cancer and 96,973 Women Without the Disease,” //The Lancet// 360 (2002):​187-195.))+If a pregnancy is healthy and lasts past 32 weeks, even should a mother deliver prematurely,​ she will have partial protection against breast cancer. Between 32 and 40 weeks’ gestation, she will gain an additional 11 percent reduction in breast cancer risk.((L.J. Vatten, P.R. Romundstad, D. Trichopoulos,​ and R. Skjærven, “Pregnancy Related Protection Against Breast Cancer Depends on Length of Gestation,​” //British Journal of Cancer// 87(2002): 289-290.)) By the end of a normal pregnancy, 70 to 90 percent of the mother’s breast is composed of cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules.((J. Russo and I.H. Russo, “Development of the Human Mammary Gland,” //The Mammary Gland//, eds. M. Neville and C. Daniel (New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation,​ 1987).)) A woman’s risk of breast cancer will decrease an additional 10 percent with each subsequent pregnancy.((M. Lambe, CC. Hsieh, HW. Chan, A. Ekbom, D. Trichopoulos,​ and HO. Adami, “Parity, Age at First and Last Birth, and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Sweden,” //Breast Cancer Research and Treatment// 38(1996): 305-311.)) This observed additional reduction in risk may be due to [[effects_of_breastfeeding_on_breast_cancer|increased breastfeeding]] among these women, fewer lifetime menstrual cycles, and more anovulatory postpartum cycles (that is, postpartum cycles that do not produce an egg) with lower estrogen exposure, all known to reduce risk. Therefore, the woman who has a full-term pregnancy obtains lifelong benefits from the epigenetic changes it produces in the breast cells and gains even more risk reduction with additional births and breastfeeding.((V. Beral, D. Bull, R. Doll, R. Peto, G. Reeves, Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Breast Cancer and Breastfeeding:​ Collaborative Reanalysis of Individual Data from 47 Epidemiological Studies in 30 Countries, Including 50,302 Women with Breast Cancer and 96,973 Women Without the Disease,” //The Lancet// 360(2002):​187-195.))
  
 In contrast, if a woman has an induced abortion (presumably prior to 32 weeks), her breasts will contain an increased number of Type 1 and Type 2 lobules and will not have developed sufficient cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules. The longer a woman is pregnant before an induced abortion, the more cancer-vulnerable Type 1 and Type 2 lobules she will develop. ​ In contrast, if a woman has an induced abortion (presumably prior to 32 weeks), her breasts will contain an increased number of Type 1 and Type 2 lobules and will not have developed sufficient cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules. The longer a woman is pregnant before an induced abortion, the more cancer-vulnerable Type 1 and Type 2 lobules she will develop. ​
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-This entry draws heavily from [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF14B56.pdf|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Link]].)) may not become detectable for eight to 10 years.+This entry draws heavily from [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​induced-abortion-and-breast-cancer/|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Link]].)) may not become detectable for eight to 10 years.
  
 ====2.4 Types of Cancer==== ====2.4 Types of Cancer====
  
 There are invasive and in situ cancers of both the milk ducts and milk glands. When cancer cells form but do not penetrate the basement membrane, or outer layer of the duct or gland, a cancer is said to be an in situ cancer. These cancers are curable, because they cannot spread to other parts of the body. Invasive cancers have penetrated the basement membrane and can spread throughout the body, becoming metastatic and life-threatening. Most invasive cancers start as in situ cancers. There are invasive and in situ cancers of both the milk ducts and milk glands. When cancer cells form but do not penetrate the basement membrane, or outer layer of the duct or gland, a cancer is said to be an in situ cancer. These cancers are curable, because they cannot spread to other parts of the body. Invasive cancers have penetrated the basement membrane and can spread throughout the body, becoming metastatic and life-threatening. Most invasive cancers start as in situ cancers.
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