Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2015/10/19 08:45]
marri [1.2 Lobule Development]
biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2017/05/16 07:18]
marri
Line 6: Line 6:
  
 ====1.1 Lobular Structure==== ====1.1 Lobular Structure====
-A lobule is a unit of breast tissue comprised of a milk duct with surrounding mammary (milk) glands, which are both composed of individual breast cells. The ductules which surround the terminal endor milkduct become the glands where milk is produced.((The ductules come off the duct draining the lobule called the “terminal end duct.” The small terminal ducts drain into larger and larger milk ducts, or lactiferous ducts. These lactiferous ducts transport milk to the lactiferous sinuses, which are just below the nipple.)) Each type of lobule has varying numbers of ductules, which become the milk-producing glands during lactation. These lobules are different morphologically (i.e., in their shape) as well as metabolically (e.g., in their doubling time).+A lobule is a unit of breast tissue comprised of a milk duct with surrounding mammary (milk) glands, which are both composed of individual breast cells. The ductules which surround the terminal end (or milkduct become the glands where milk is produced.((The ductules come off the duct draining the lobule called the “terminal end duct.” The small terminal ducts drain into larger and larger milk ducts, or lactiferous ducts. These lactiferous ducts transport milk to the lactiferous sinuses, which are just below the nipple.)) Each type of lobule has varying numbers of ductules, which become the milk-producing glands during lactation. These lobules are different morphologically (i.e., in their shape) as well as metabolically (e.g., in their doubling time).
 \\ \\
 <​html><​center><​b>​Lobule Types and Their Structures</​b></​center></​html>​ <​html><​center><​b>​Lobule Types and Their Structures</​b></​center></​html>​
Line 15: Line 15:
 Type 1 and Type 2 lobules are cancer-vulnerable. Type 3 and Type 4 lobules are cancer-resistant. Type 1 and Type 2 lobules are cancer-vulnerable. Type 3 and Type 4 lobules are cancer-resistant.
  
-During the first half of pregnancy, the proliferation phase, Type 1 and Type 2 lobules increase in number. During the second half of pregnancy (after week 20), the differentiation phase, these cancer-vulnerable Type 1 and Type 2 lobules begin to mature into cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules. After 32 weeks of pregnancy, sufficient Type 4 lobules have developed that a mother is [[effects_of_pregnancy_on_breast_cancer_risks|protected against breast cancer]], and she incrementally gains the breast cancer risk reduction that will maximize at 40 weeks. After birth and after a mother has lactated and [[effects_of_breastfeeding_on_breast_cancer|breastfed]] (or should she choose not to breastfeed),​ Type 4 lobules regress to Type 3 lobules, which retain the epigenetic changes that protect against cancer’s development.+During the first half of pregnancy, the proliferation phase, Type 1 and Type 2 lobules increase in number. During the second half of pregnancy (after week 20), the differentiation phase, these cancer-vulnerable Type 1 and Type 2 lobules begin to mature into cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules. After 32 weeks of pregnancy, sufficient Type 4 lobules have developed that a mother is [[effects_of_pregnancy_on_breast_cancer_risks|protected against breast cancer]], and she incrementally gains the breast cancer risk reduction that will maximize at 40 weeks. After birth and after a mother has lactated and [[effects_of_breastfeeding_on_breast_cancer|breastfed]] (or should she choose not to breastfeed),​ Type 4 lobules regress to Type 3 lobules, which retain the epigenetic changes that protect against cancer’s development. ​
 \\ \\
  
Line 21: Line 21:
 {{ :​biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_figure_2.jpg?​direct&​600 |Lobule Development Before, During, and After Pregnancy}} {{ :​biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_figure_2.jpg?​direct&​600 |Lobule Development Before, During, and After Pregnancy}}
  
-If a pregnancy is healthy and lasts past 32 weeks, even should a mother deliver prematurely,​ she will have partial protection against breast cancer. Between 32 and 40 weeks’ gestation, she will gain an additional 11 percent reduction in breast cancer risk.((L.J. Vatten, P.R. Romundstad, D. Trichopoulos,​ and R. Skjærven, “Pregnancy Related Protection Against Breast Cancer Depends on Length of Gestation,​” //British Journal of Cancer// 87 (2002): 289-290.)) By the end of a normal pregnancy, 70 to 90 percent of the mother’s breast is composed of cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules.((Jose Russo and Irma H. Russo, “Development of the Human Mammary Gland,​” ​in //The Mammary Gland//, eds. M. Neville and C. Daniel (New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation,​ 1987).)) A woman’s risk of breast cancer will decrease an additional 10 percent with each subsequent pregnancy.((Mats Lambe, ​Chung-cheng ​Hsieh, ​Hsiao-wei ​Chan, Anders ​Ekbom, ​Dimitrios ​Trichopoulos,​ and Hans-Olov ​Adami, “Parity, Age at First and Last Birth, and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Sweden,” //Breast Cancer Research and Treatment// 38 (1996): 305-311.)) This observed additional reduction in risk may be due to increased breastfeeding among these women, fewer lifetime menstrual cycles, and more anovulatory postpartum cycles (that is, postpartum cycles that do not produce an egg) with lower estrogen exposure, all known to reduce risk. Therefore, the woman who has a full-term pregnancy obtains lifelong benefits from the epigenetic changes it produces in the breast cells and gains even more risk reduction with additional births and breastfeeding.((V. Beral, D. Bull, R. Doll, R. Peto, G. Reeves, Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Breast ​cancer ​and breastfeedingcollaborative reanalysis ​of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies ​in 30 countriesincluding ​50,​302 ​women with breast cancer ​and 96,​973 ​women without ​the disease,” //The Lancet// 360 (2002):​187-195.))+If a pregnancy is healthy and lasts past 32 weeks, even should a mother deliver prematurely,​ she will have partial protection against breast cancer. Between 32 and 40 weeks’ gestation, she will gain an additional 11 percent reduction in breast cancer risk.((L.J. Vatten, P.R. Romundstad, D. Trichopoulos,​ and R. Skjærven, “Pregnancy Related Protection Against Breast Cancer Depends on Length of Gestation,​” //British Journal of Cancer// 87(2002): 289-290.)) By the end of a normal pregnancy, 70 to 90 percent of the mother’s breast is composed of cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules.((J. Russo and I.H. Russo, “Development of the Human Mammary Gland,” //The Mammary Gland//, eds. M. Neville and C. Daniel (New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation,​ 1987).)) A woman’s risk of breast cancer will decrease an additional 10 percent with each subsequent pregnancy.((M. Lambe, ​CC. Hsieh, ​HW. Chan, A. Ekbom, ​D. Trichopoulos,​ and HO. Adami, “Parity, Age at First and Last Birth, and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Sweden,” //Breast Cancer Research and Treatment// 38(1996): 305-311.)) This observed additional reduction in risk may be due to [[effects_of_breastfeeding_on_breast_cancer|increased breastfeeding]] among these women, fewer lifetime menstrual cycles, and more anovulatory postpartum cycles (that is, postpartum cycles that do not produce an egg) with lower estrogen exposure, all known to reduce risk. Therefore, the woman who has a full-term pregnancy obtains lifelong benefits from the epigenetic changes it produces in the breast cells and gains even more risk reduction with additional births and breastfeeding.((V. Beral, D. Bull, R. Doll, R. Peto, G. Reeves, Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Breast ​Cancer ​and BreastfeedingCollaborative Reanalysis ​of Individual Data from 47 Epidemiological Studies ​in 30 CountriesIncluding ​50,​302 ​Women with Breast Cancer ​and 96,​973 ​Women Without ​the Disease,” //The Lancet// 360(2002):​187-195.))
  
-{{ :​biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_table_1.png?​direct&​600 ​|}}+In contrast, if a woman has an induced abortion (presumably prior to 32 weeks), her breasts will contain an increased number of Type 1 and Type 2 lobules and will not have developed sufficient cancer-resistant Type 4 lobulesThe longer a woman is pregnant before an induced abortion, the more cancer-vulnerable Type 1 and Type 2 lobules she will develop.  
 + 
 +<​html><​center><​b>​Table 1: Progression of Lifetime Breast Development</​b></​center></​html>​ 
 +^Breast Development ^State of breast lobule development ^ 
 +|After puberty |75 percent Type 1 lobules and 25 percent Type 2 lobules| 
 +|After conceiving |Increase in Type 1 lobules and Type 2 lobules| 
 +|At 20 weeks’ gestation |Absolute number of Type 1 lobules and Type 2 lobules has greatly increased; maturation into Type 4 lobules commences | 
 +|At 32 weeks’ gestation |Sufficient Type 1 and Type 2 lobules have matured into Type 4 lobules that the mother has a lowered risk of breast cancer | 
 +|At 40 weeks’ gestation |70 to 90 percent of the breasts are cancer-resistant Type 4 lobules| 
 +|After weaning |Type 4 lobules stop milk production and regress to Type 3 lobules, which have permanent epigenetic changes that protect against cancer | 
 +|After menopause |Type 3 lobules change morphologically into what appear to be Type 1 lobules; however, their genes do not change in their up- or down-regulation,​ so risk reduction is maintained ​|
  
 =====2. Breast Cancer Formation===== =====2. Breast Cancer Formation=====
Line 31: Line 41:
 Cells grow through mitosis, or cell division. Before a single cell divides into two cells, it must make a complete copy of its DNA. The process of cell division occurs during the cell cycle, which also includes a resting phase after the synthesis of new DNA and other cell structures; thus, if errors are made when DNA is copied, they can be repaired during this resting phase. Cells grow through mitosis, or cell division. Before a single cell divides into two cells, it must make a complete copy of its DNA. The process of cell division occurs during the cell cycle, which also includes a resting phase after the synthesis of new DNA and other cell structures; thus, if errors are made when DNA is copied, they can be repaired during this resting phase.
  
-{{ :biology_of_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link_table_2.png?​direct&​600 ​|}}+<​html><​center><​b>​Table 2Lobular Morphology, Cancer Vulnerability,​ and Structure</​b></​center></​html>​ 
 +^Type of lobule ^Morphology of lobules ^Types of cancer that forms from lobules ^Structural and metabolic differences of lobules ^ 
 +|Type 1 |Average 11 ductules per lobular unit |Ductal cancers (which are approximately 85 percent of all breast cancers), arising in milk ducts((A lobule has a milk duct and glands. The gland makes the milk, and the milk duct collects the milk. Under the microscope, a pathologist can determine whether a cancer ductal or lobular carcinoma. Ductal cancers start in the ducts of Type 1 lobules, and lobular cancers start in the glands of Type 2 lobules.)) |Highest number of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cells\\ - Highest rate of cell proliferation (marked by Ki67 protein) \\ - Shortest DNA doubling time | 
 +|Type 2 |Average 47 doctules per lobular unit |Lobular cancers (which are approximately 15 percent of all breast cancers), arising in milk glands |- Approximately half the number of estrogen and progesterone receptors as Type 1 lobules\\ - One third of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 protein of Type 1 lobules\\ - A shorter DNA doubling time than Type 3 lobules | 
 +|Type 3 |Average 81 ductules per lobular unit |Cancer-resistant | - Negligible numbers of estrogen and progesterone receptors\\ - Less than one tenth of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 protein of Type 1 and Type 2 lobules\\ - Type 4 lobules regress to Type 3 lobules after cessation of breastfeeding | 
 +|Type 4 |Average 81 ductules per lobular unit |Cancer-resistant |- Absence of proliferation ((Type 4 lobules do not proliferate,​ as they are terminally differentiated and producing milk.))\\ - Lobules produce and contain colostrum (early milk) or mature milk in their glands ​| 
 + 
  
 ====2.2 Lobules'​ Cancer Vulnerability==== ====2.2 Lobules'​ Cancer Vulnerability====
Line 41: Line 58:
 ====2.3 Cancer Detection==== ====2.3 Cancer Detection====
  
-On average, one breast cancer cell takes eight to 10 years to grow into a clinically detectable tumor mass one centimeter in diameter.((J. Gershon-Cohen,​ S.M. Berger, and Herbert ​S. Klickstein, “Roentgenography of breast cancer moderating concept ​of ‘biologic predeterminism,’” //Cancer// 16, no. 8 (August ​1963): 961-964.)) This is why cancer triggered by an induced abortion((An examination of the timing in which breast cancer is statistically most likely to manifest itself after a woman obtains an induced abortion (around a decade to 14 years thereafter, with a seemingly diminished risk of manifestation 15 or more years after the abortion is procured) seems to indicate that induced abortion is itself a carcinogenic experience and is not merely an event that weakens a woman’s defenses against breast cancer. ​+On average, one breast cancer cell takes eight to 10 years to grow into a clinically detectable tumor mass one centimeter in diameter.((J. Gershon-Cohen,​ S.M. Berger, and H.S. Klickstein, “Roentgenography of Breast Cancer Moderating Concept ​of ‘Biologic Predeterminism,’” //Cancer// 16, no. 8 (1963): 961-964.)) This is why cancer triggered by an induced abortion((An examination of the timing in which breast cancer is statistically most likely to manifest itself after a woman obtains an induced abortion (around a decade to 14 years thereafter, with a seemingly diminished risk of manifestation 15 or more years after the abortion is procured) seems to indicate that induced abortion is itself a carcinogenic experience and is not merely an event that weakens a woman’s defenses against breast cancer. ​
 \\ \\
 \\ \\
 \\ \\
-This entry draws heavily from [[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF14B56.pdf|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Link]].)) may not become detectable for eight to 10 years.+This entry draws heavily from [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​induced-abortion-and-breast-cancer/|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Link]].)) may not become detectable for eight to 10 years.
  
 ====2.4 Types of Cancer==== ====2.4 Types of Cancer====
  
 There are invasive and in situ cancers of both the milk ducts and milk glands. When cancer cells form but do not penetrate the basement membrane, or outer layer of the duct or gland, a cancer is said to be an in situ cancer. These cancers are curable, because they cannot spread to other parts of the body. Invasive cancers have penetrated the basement membrane and can spread throughout the body, becoming metastatic and life-threatening. Most invasive cancers start as in situ cancers. There are invasive and in situ cancers of both the milk ducts and milk glands. When cancer cells form but do not penetrate the basement membrane, or outer layer of the duct or gland, a cancer is said to be an in situ cancer. These cancers are curable, because they cannot spread to other parts of the body. Invasive cancers have penetrated the basement membrane and can spread throughout the body, becoming metastatic and life-threatening. Most invasive cancers start as in situ cancers.
 +